I N V I T E D    T A L K 
Practical Citation in a World of Evolving Data
John A. Kunze, University of California, Office of the President, USA

The conduct of scholarship has long required the ability for authors to cite works that support, refute, extend, credit, or otherwise relate to the citing work. Traditional citation guidelines have been sufficient to create stable references for printed materials held in the world's libraries and archives, but common citation practices have not yet appeared for digital objects that change frequently, come in a variety of formats, and themselves consist of a hierarchy of citable objects. The absence of such practices is keenly felt in scientific research that relies on long-term access to large databases.

Investigation quickly shows that stable database citation is much more than a matter of superficial notational convention, but presupposes an underlying usage model that must be acceptable to data users, producers, publishers, and archivists. The model should encompass a variety of citation needs and synthesize prior discipline-specific efforts at data description in biomedicine, political and social science, astronomy, geography, etc. The model should also accommodate the modern, internet-age expectation that citations include persistent identifiers usable with widely available software to gain access to cited works.