Key to Proofreading Marks

Graded papers will often have some of these symbols, which have the indicated meanings:
Symbol Meaning
Start a new paragraph here
Insert a space
Close up (remove space)
Make lowercase
Transpose (switch word or letter order)
Specify what the acronym stands for
Unclear what you meant to say; rephrase
Incorrect or false; fix
Awkward, imprecise, too informal, etc.; rephrase
Open-ended; add a definite conclusion that relates this point to your topic
Awkward or hard to follow; rephrase
Too many short sentences in a row; combine
Unjustified assertion; provide a citation or other support
Not clear or not well supported; add support, justification, or explanation
Too informal; rephrase more precisely, without contractions, etc.
"If so, say so" -- Not clear what you meant, but if my guess is correct, then state it explicitly in the paper.
Technically correct but difficult to follow; reword the sentence or phrase
Uses pejorative language or has negative connotations; rephrase to be more balanced and diplomatic
Repetitive; eliminate duplication
Let stand (ignore my marks)
Discontinuity; add a transition (usually to the introductory sentence of the following paragraph), motivate, make flow smoother
Vague or ambiguous; make more specific and precise
Claim is too weak; reword to make a definite statement

Last revised: $Date: 2001/10/30 09:35:19 $