Simulation over One-Counter Nets is PSPACE-complete

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One-counter nets (OCN) are Petri nets with exactly one unbounded place. They are equivalent to a subclass of one-counter automata with just a weak test for zero. Unlike many other semantic equivalences, strong and weak simulation preorder are decidable for OCN, but the computational complexity was an open problem. We show that both strong and weak simulation preorder on OCN are PSPACE-complete.