On the Coverability Problem for Pushdown Vector Addition Systems in One Dimension

Does the trace language of a given vector addition system (VAS) intersect with a given context-free language? This question lies at the heart of several verification questions involving recursive programs with integer parameters. In particular, it is equivalent to the coverability problem for VAS that operate on a pushdown stack. We show decidability in dimension one, based on an analysis of a new model called grammar-controlled vector addition systems.