VISIONS (Visual Integration by Semantic Interpretation of Natural Scenes)  was an early knowledge-based system for static image interpretation. An early example for dynamic scene analysis, which also used constraint-based reasoning, was the ALVEN system . In contraint-based vision, a set of interacting constraints about the scene and task context are used to guide the reasoning. For example, the VISIONS system had many levels for the representation in both the long-term knowledge base and the short-term interpretation of a particular image. It used both declarative and procedural knowledge in hypothesis generation using bottom-up and top-down reasoning. The schema mechanism supported a conceptual hierarchy by allowing entities to be described as themselves, part of a higher level schema, or a schema for lower level entities. It was necessary to develop VISIONS to incorporate Bayesian belief probabilities  and more recently, Dempster-Shafer belief functions  to handle uncertainty in visual evidence. This move from simple constraint-based reasoning to incorporate more sophisticated probabilistic reasoning with the symbolic knowledge has been one of the major trends in research on visual interpretation and understanding. This is mainly because it allows more finely tuned selective processing (through effective information integration and resource allocation) in the face of poor visual evidence.
Constraint satisfaction remains a major approach for bringing knowledge into real-time vision. In VIEWS, the main demonstration of behavioural evaluation and incident detection in traffic scenes used such techniques . Furthermore, although knowledge-based vision has a poor history in robotics , innovative research by Mackworth  has shown that contraint-based vision can deliver a ``quick and clean'' response. In his situated agent approach, constraint nets specify robot behaviour in terms of both the goals and low-level reactions using a formal model that incorporates a symmetrical coupling of the robot with its environment. In situated cognition, the role of the environment is emphasised for active problem solving so that both the agent acting on the environment and the environment shaping the behaviour of the agent is fully modelled. Mackworth automatically constructs a constraint-satisfying controller from the formal model for the on-line system using a generalised dynamical system language. This use of more situated models, inspired by interdisciplinary research, is a promising, new direction in the subfield.