CVonline: Unfolded List of Topics


  1. Applications

    General Application Notes

    1. Agricultural / Forestry
      1. Crop Treatment/Weed Classification and Control
      2. Forest Survey/Tree Crown counting (See also Fire detection)
      3. Fruit Grading
      4. Cereal/Grain Inspection
      5. Harvest Control
      6. Land Management
      7. Plant Disease and Parasite Identification
      8. Plant Health/Condition Monitoring
      9. Pollen Identification
      10. Ripeness Estimation
      11. Species Identification
      12. Timber/Log/Wood
      13. Yield Estimation
    2. Animal/Insect Monitoring
      1. Animals
        1. Animal Detection, Tracking and Counting
        2. Flock Tracking
        3. Pregnant Animal Monitoring
      2. Fish
        1. Age Analysis
        2. Shape Modeling, Tracking and Counting
      3. Insects
        1. Counting
        2. Greenhouse Monitoring
        3. Tracking and Behaviour Analysis
    3. Architectural/Construction
      1. Archeological Applications
      2. Building Description
      3. Building Site Survey
      4. Building Recognition
      5. Concrete Crack Detection
      6. Model Reconstruction
      7. Sewer Survey
    4. Character Recognition (Printed and Handwritten)
      1. Arabic (modern)
      2. Bengali
      3. Chinese
      4. Farsi (Persian) Character Recognition
      5. Ethiopic Character Recognition
      6. Gujarati Character Recognition
      7. Japanese
      8. Korean
      9. Roman Letters
        1. Cursive
        2. Hand Printed
        3. Machine Printed
      10. South Indian (Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada) Character Recognition
      11. Slant Normalization
      12. Western (aka Arabic) Digits
    5. Commercial Applications
      1. Advertising
      2. Bank Checks
      3. Banknote Inspection
      4. Bar-Code Reading
      5. Coin Authentication
      6. Currency Verification and Recognition
      7. Seal Verification
      8. Shopping checkout monitoring
      9. Vegetable Recognition/Veggie Vision
    6. Cultural
      1. Cultural Heritage Modelling and Analysis
      2. Dance Description
      3. Painting Authentication, Style Description and Similiarity Matching
    7. Document Processing
      1. Diagram Understanding
        1. Blueprints
        2. Cartoons/Sketches
        3. Electronic Circuits
        4. Floor Plan Analysis
        5. Map Analysis
        6. Music Scores
      2. Document Mosaicing
      3. Equation Understanding
      4. Form and Layout Understanding
      5. Handwritten Note Cleaning
      6. Letter Analysis
      7. Post Code Recognition
      8. Post Metering Analysis
      9. Signature/Writer Verification
      10. Skew Correction
      11. Trademark Database Indexing
      12. Watermark Extraction
    8. Entertainment/Media Industry
      1. Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality
        1. Registration
        2. Virtual Sets
      2. Color Processing
        1. Color Demosaicing
        2. Color Matching
        3. Decoloring/optimal color to grey conversion
      3. Computer Games
        1. Player Adaptation/Insertion
      4. Mobile Phone
        1. Word Detection and Translation
      5. Video
        1. Coding
        2. Compression
          (See also Image Compression)
        3. Cut Detection/Scene Segmentation
        4. Databases
        5. Post-Production
        6. Text Detection
        7. Video Copy Detection
        8. Video Digitization
        9. Video Inpainting
        10. Video Transition Effect Detection
    9. Environmental Analysis/Monitoring
      1. Oil Spill Analysis
    10. Forensic
      1. Blind Image Forensics
        1. Tampering Detection
      2. Crime Scene Reconstruction
      3. Face Indexing and Identification (See also Heads and Faces)
      4. Fingerprint Indexing and Identification
      5. Shoeprint Recognition
    11. Human
      1. Biometrics (See also Face Recognition)
        1. Finger Vein/Capillary Pattern
        2. Gait Analysis and Walker Identification
        3. Hand Geometry
        4. Handwriting Recognition
        5. Knuckleprint Recognition
        6. Liveness Assessment
        7. Palm Print Verification
        8. Physical Quantification: age, beardedness
        9. Psychological Quantification: smileness, honesty, pain
        10. Retinal Patterns
        11. Signature Identification and Verification
        12. Tongueprint
      2. Body
        1. Abdominal Fat Estimation
        2. Behavior Analysis
        3. Detection
          1. Part-Based Body Detection
          2. Whole Body Detection
        4. Gender Recognition
        5. Model Acquisition and Animation
        6. Motion Tracking
        7. Movement Analysis and Shape Recovery
          1. Appearance Based Approaches
            1. Articulated
            2. Exemplar Based
          2. Data Acquisition
            1. Multi-View
            2. Single View
          3. Geometric Model Based Approaches
            1. 2D Articulated
            2. 3D Articulated
            3. Exemplar Based
            4. Loose Models
            5. Marker Based
            6. Pose Tracking
          4. Pose Estimation
            1. Joint-Angle Estimation
            2. Posture Estimation
        8. Person Location/Counting/Following
        9. Posture Analysis
        10. Tattoo Retrieval
      3. Feet
        1. Foot Scanning/Shape Analysis
      4. Hands
        1. Gesture Detection and Analysis
        2. Hand Sign Recognition
        3. Location and Tracking
      5. Heads and Faces
        1. Age Progression
        2. Authentication and Identification
          1. 3D Data Methods
          2. Color Texture Methods
          3. Ear Recognition
          4. Eigenface/Laplacianface Methods
          5. Frontal
          6. Intensity Texture Methods
          7. Iris Segmentation and Recognition
          8. Model Based Methods
          9. Motion-Based Recognition
          10. Profile
        3. Detection, Location and Tracking
        4. Encoding and Compression
        5. Expression Understanding
        6. Eye Blink State Detection
        7. Eye Location / Tracking
        8. Feature Location and Tracking
        9. Gaze Location, Direction Estimation and Tracking
        10. Gender/Ethnicity Recognition
        11. Lip Shape Analysis, Tracking and Reading
        12. Model Acquisition and Animation
        13. Skin Color Analysis
        14. Speech Emotion Recognition
    12. Human-Computer Interfaces
      1. Assistive Interfaces
        1. Blind/Visually Impaired Person Support
        2. Elderly Falling Detection
        3. Elderly Forgetfulness Assistance
        4. Visual Mouse
      2. Game Interfaces
    13. Image and Video Enhancement and Restoration (See also Noise Reduction and Image Restoration)
      1. Camera Motion Compensation/De-jittering
      2. Color Correction
      3. Focus Blurring Correction
      4. Illumination Artifact Removal
      5. Image Gap Completion
      6. Motion Deblurring
      7. Nighttime Image Enhancement
      8. Object Removal
      9. Prettification
      10. Red Eye Detection and Correction
      11. Scratch and Artifact Removal
      12. Stabilization
        1. Image and Sequence Stabilization
        2. Binocular Image Stabilization
      13. Temporal Resampling
      14. Video Restoration
    14. Industrial
      1. Employee Alertness Monitoring (See also Driver Alertness/Fatigue Monitoring)
      2. Factory Automation
        1. Assembly Feedback
      3. Food Manufacture
      4. Inspection
        1. Carpet
        2. Disk Head
        3. Damage Quantification
        4. Glass and Ceramics
        5. Industrial Parts/Castings
        6. Integrated Circuits
          1. Appearance Based
          2. Range Data Based
          3. Missing Component Detection
        7. LCD/Plasma/TFT Display Inspection
        8. Leather
        9. Paper/Recycled Paper
        10. Particle Counting
        11. Pharmaceutical Tablet Inspection
        12. Printed Circuit Boards
        13. Solder Joints
        14. Steel
        15. Structural Strain
        16. Structural Crack Detection
        17. Tea Inspection
        18. Textiles/Fabrics/Cloth
        19. Timber/Wood (See Forestry->Timber)
      5. Part Pose Estimation
      6. Part Recognition
      7. Process Control
        1. Paint Spraying
        2. Robot control and feedback
        3. Weld Seam Tracking
        4. Wood Use/Timber Cutting (See Forestry->Timber)
      8. Reverse Engineering
        1. Reverse Engineering from Diagrams
        2. From Motion
        3. Reverse Engineering from Object Contours
        4. From Range Data
        5. From Single Views
        6. From Sparse 3D
    15. Leisure and Entertainment
    16. Measurement
      1. Geometric Morphometrics
    17. Medical (Veterinary and Human)
      1. Animal Disease and Parasite Identification
      2. Intensity Image Based
        1. Capsule Endoscopy Image Analysis
        2. Colposcopy/Cervical Abnormality
        3. Laryngeal Image Analysis
        4. Retinal Images
        5. Skin Analysis, including Cancer
      3. Microscope-Based
        1. Cell Nucleus Segmentation
        2. Chromosome Analysis
        3. Lymphoma Analysis
        4. Parasite Detection and Classification
        5. White Blood Cell Classification
      4. Multi-Mode/Multi-Image Registration and Fusion
      5. Scanner-Based
        1. Abdominal Organ Extraction
        2. Aneurysm Detection
        3. Arterial Tree Segmentation
        4. Bone Detection and Segmentation
        5. Brain Section Segmentation
        6. Bronchial Tree Extraction
        7. Cardiac Shape Extraction and Tracking
        8. Cartiladge Analysis
        9. Cervical, Spinal and Lumbar Vertabral Analysis
        10. Colorectal Polyp Detection
        11. Cortical Shape Extraction
        12. Femur and Pelvis Segmentation
        13. fMRI Brain Analysis
        14. Hippocampal and Amygdala Segmentation
        15. Limb Extraction
        16. Mid-saggital Plane Detection
        17. Movement Compensation
          1. Beating Heart
          2. Respiration
        18. Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Segmentation
        19. Prostate Segmentation
        20. Radiotherapy Planning
        21. Real-time Surgical Support
        22. Spleen and Liver Segmentation
        23. Structure Extraction
        24. Tumor Detection
        25. Virtual Endoscopy
      6. Ultrasound-based
        1. 3D Reconstruction
        2. Blood Flow Monitoring
        3. Cardiac Monitoring
        4. Fetal Monitoring
        5. Ovarian
      7. Xray-based
        1. Angiography
        2. Bone Densitometry
        3. Breast Scan/Mammogram
        4. General Tumor Detection
        5. Lung Segmentation and Analysis
        6. Skeletal Age Estimation
      8. Other
        1. Atlas-based Registration and Segmentation
        2. Deformable Biological Shape Models
        3. Dental Impression Analysis
        4. DNA/Genome Analysis
        5. Fetal Surgery
        6. Hand-washing monitoring
        7. Optical Coherence Tomography
        8. Skeletal Scintigraphy
    18. Meteorological
      1. Cyclone/Hurricane Detection
    19. Military
      1. Aircraft Identification/Tracking
      2. Landmine detection
      3. Missile Detection and Tracking
      4. Target Recognition/Tracking
      5. Vehicle Detection
    20. Navigation, Mobility and Vehicle Control
      1. Docking Control
      2. Ground Tracking and Following
      3. Local Traffic Analysis
      4. Map Registration and Self-Localization
        1. Appearance Based
        2. Intensity Feature-Based
        3. Landmark Detection
        4. Radar/Range Sensing/acoustic
      5. Obstacle Detection and Avoidance
      6. Road Following
      7. Trajectory Correction
      8. Vehicle Control
    21. Remote Sensing
      1. Airport Analysis, Landing Strip Identification
      2. Building Detection
      3. Change Detection (See Change and Moving Object Detection)
      4. Cloud Identification/Tracking
      5. Crop/Land-Use Identification and Survey
      6. Drainage Network Analysis
      7. Image-to-Map Registration
      8. Material Classification
      9. Multiple Scan Registration
      10. Photogrammetry
      11. Road Detection, Extraction and Matching
      12. Sea/Ocean Wave Analysis
      13. Sea Ice Detection
      14. Ship/Seaport Analysis
      15. Terrain Analysis and Understanding
      16. Urban Structure Classification
    22. Robotics
      1. Robot Localization
        1. Floor Plan Extraction
        2. Marker Based
        3. Omni-directional Cameras
        4. SLAM Based
        5. Visual Servoing
      2. Robot Motion Control
        1. Docking
        2. Obstacle Avoidance
        3. Path Following
      3. Robo-Cup Soccer Analysis
    23. Safety
      1. Crowd Behavior Analysis
      2. Curb/Kerb and Step Detection
      3. Flame and Fire Detection
      4. Land Mine Detection
      5. Microwave Cold Spot Detection
      6. Particle Counting
      7. Steam and Smoke Detection
    24. Scientific
      1. Astronomical
        1. Aurora Image Analysis
        2. Coronal Event Analysis
        3. Star Catalog
      2. Metallurgical Crystal Analysis
      3. Physics
        1. Particle Tracking
      4. Protein Folding Recognition
    25. Security and Surveillance
      1. Anomalous Behavior Detection
      2. Background Labelling
      3. Car Park Surveillance
      4. Change Detection (See Change and Moving Object Detection)
      5. Intruder Detection and Tracking
      6. Metal Detection
      7. Multi-Camera Networks
      8. Pedestrian Surveillance
      9. People Counting
      10. Queue Analysis
      11. Surveillance Prioritization
      12. Workflow Verification and Monitoring
    26. Sports
      1. Event Detection/analysis
      2. Play Annotation
    27. Traffic and Transport
      1. Airport Monitoring
      2. Automotive
        1. Blind Spot Monitoring
        2. Driver Alertness/Fatigue Monitoring (See also Employee Alertness Monitoring)
        3. Driver Support
        4. Pedestrian Detection
        5. Road Sign Identification
      3. Railroad Analysis
      4. Road Structure Analysis
      5. Seaport Monitoring
      6. Traffic Analysis
      7. Vehicle Detection, Monitoring and Tracking
      8. Vehicle License/Number Plate Analysis
      9. Vehicle Model Identification
    28. Virtual Reality
      1. Architectural Model Construction (see Architectural/Construction Model Reconstruction)
      2. Object Model Construction
      3. VR from Intensity Data
      4. VR from Range Data
    29. Other
      1. Image Mosaicing
      2. Image Stitching
      3. Nighttime Video Enhancement
      4. Steganography/Information Hiding
      5. Text Detection in Video
      6. Texture Synthesis
      7. Video Sequence Synchronization
      8. Video Temporal Resampling
  2. Databases and Indexing
    1. Database Organizations
    2. Database Types
    3. Indexing Algorithms
    4. Image Databases
    5. Intensity and Color Indices
      1. Color Histogram Matching
      2. Color Indexing
      3. GIST
      4. Multi-Modal Neighborhood Signatures
    6. QBIC: Query By Image Content / CBIR: Content-Based Image Retrieval
      1. Bayesian User Modelling
      2. Near Duplicate Image Retrieval
      3. Relevance Feedback
    7. Retrieval Evaluation
      1. Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain
    8. Semantic Image Retrieval
    9. Shape Indices
      1. 3D Shape Indices
      2. Curvature Scale Space
    10. Texture Indices
    11. Video Database Analysis/Indexing
  3. Famous Vision Systems
    1. ACRONYM
    2. ALVINN
    3. AMBLER
    4. APPLY
    5. BABE
    6. CODGER
    7. CONDOR
    8. CVS
    9. GEOMETER
    10. GIPSY
    11. IDECS
    12. IGS
    13. IUA
    14. KBVISION
    15. MANIAC
    16. MAPSEE
    17. Marr's Theory
    18. MSYS
    19. NAVLAB
    20. NGS
    21. PHOENIX
    22. POLY
    23. SEE
    24. SIGMA
    25. SPIDER
    26. SUCCESSOR
    27. TINA
    28. VaMoRs
    29. VISIONS
    30. VISTA
    31. YARF
  4. Generic Vision Methods
    1. Accumulation/Voting Methods
      1. Hough
        1. Adaptive Hough Transform
        2. Analytic Curve Finding
        3. Cascaded Hough Transform
        4. Generalized Hough Transform
        5. Hierarchical Hough Transform
        6. Maximum Margin Hough Transform
        7. Performance Improvement Techniques
        8. Pose Estimation
        9. Probabilistic Hough Transform
        10. Randomised Hough Transform
        11. Surface Finding
        12. Velocity
      2. Tensor Voting
    2. Diffusion/PDE/Time-Based Evolution Methods
      1. Heat Kernel
    3. Eigenvector/Function Decompositions (See Eigenvector and Eigenfunction)
    4. Genetic Algorithms/Programming
    5. Graph Methods
      1. Graph Representations
        1. Adjacency Graph
        2. Association Graph
        3. Attributed Graph
        4. Dynamic Feature Graph
        5. Graph Embedding
        6. Hierarchical Graph/Hypergraph Representations
        7. Laplacian Smoothing
        8. Median Graph
        9. Optimal Basis Graphs
        10. Probabilistic Graph Representations
      2. Graph Matching
        1. Bayesian Graph Matching
        2. Bipartite Matching
        3. Graph Cuts
        4. Graph Kernel Methods
        5. Graph/Tree Edit Distance and Methods
        6. Maximal Cliques in Association Graphs
        7. Spectral Decomposition Methods
        8. Subgraph Isomorphism
    6. Image Pyramids and Scale Reduction
      1. Adaptive Pyramids
      2. Gaussian Pyramids
      3. Laplacian Pyramids
    7. Level Sets
      1. Level Set Trees
    8. Minimum Description Length
    9. Multiple Scales/Resolutions
      1. Fractals
      2. Multi-Scale Integration
      3. Ranklets
      4. Scale Space
      5. Wavelets
        1. Noiselets
    10. Graph, Networks & Connectionist Methods
      1. Bayesian Networks
      2. Connectionist Methods
      3. Gaussian Process Methods (Regression, Classification0
      4. Neural Networks
      5. Probabilistic Graphical Models
        1. Expectation Propagation, Power Expectation Propagation Inference
        2. Fractional Belief Propagation Inference
        3. Loopy Belief Propagation Inference
        4. Message Passing, Tree Reweighted Message Passing, Variational Message Passing Inference
      6. Radial Basis Function Networks
      7. Wavelet Networks
    11. Regularization
    12. Relaxation
      1. Continuous
      2. Discrete
      3. Probabilistic/Stochastic
    13. Spatial Indexing/Spatial Hashing
    14. Subpixel Methods
    15. Super-resolution
    16. (Un)Certainty Representations
      1. Bayesian Networks (See Bayesian Networks)
      2. Discrete (See Relaxation)
      3. Fuzzy Logic
      4. Intervals
      5. Probabilities
    17. Vision Paradigms
      1. 3D Vision
      2. Active Vision (See Motion: Active Vision)
      3. Geometric Vision (See Vision Geometry and Mathematics and Geometric Representation of Model Features)
      4. Purposive Vision
      5. Qualitative Vision
    18. Vision System Design and Characterization
      1. Error Propagation
      2. Performance Characterization
      3. Receiver Operating Characteristics
      4. System Design Issues
  5. Geometric Feature Extraction Methods
    1. General
    2. 3D from
      1. Line Drawings
    3. Boundary/Line/Curve Segmentation
      1. Breakpoint/Corner Detection
      2. Lowe's Method
      3. Multi-Scale Methods
      4. Recursive Splitting
    4. Compressed Image Feature Extraction
      1. Camera Motion Estimation
      2. Color Distributions/Descriptors
      3. Edges
      4. Salient Points
      5. Texture Descriptors
    5. Connected Component Labeling
    6. Corner and Interest Point Feature Detectors and Descriptors
      1. Curvature Scale Space
      2. Feature Point/Region Descriptor, incl. Lowe's SIFT
      3. Forstner Operator
      4. Haralick Operator
      5. Harris/Plessey Corner Finder, including Scale Adapted
        1. Harris Affine
        2. Harris Laplace
      6. Histogram of oriented gradients
      7. Moravec Operator
      8. Subpixel Corner Finding
      9. Speeded Up Robust Features, SURF
        1. 3D SURF Features
      10. Shape Context, HoSC, Histogram of Shape Context
      11. Susan Corner Finder
      12. Wavelet-Based Salient Point Detection
    7. Curve Fitting/Local Curvature Estimation
      1. Circle Fitting
      2. Curve Smoothing
      3. Ellipse Fitting
      4. Hyperbola Fitting
    8. Edge Detection and Enhancement
      1. Adaptive Edge Detection
      2. Canny/Deriche Edge Detector
      3. Color Edge Detectors
      4. Edge Types
        1. Edge Type Labelling
      5. Energy Function Based Edge Detectors
      6. Evaluation of Edge Detectors
      7. Extended Edge Detection
      8. First Derivative, Gradient Edge Detection
      9. High-pass Filter Edge Enhancement
      10. Hueckel and other Parametric Fitting Edge Detectors
      11. Kirsch Compass Edge Detector
      12. Marr-Hildreth, Laplacian of Gaussian, Zero-Crossing, Difference of Gaussian Edge Detector
      13. Mathematical Morphology Based Edge Detectors
      14. Moving Edge Detection
      15. Multi-Dimension Edge Detection
      16. Multi-Scale Edge Detectors
      17. Optimal Edge Detectors (See also Canny Edge Detector)
      18. Other Edge Detectors
      19. Prewitt/Sobel Edge Detector
      20. Range/Depth Image Edge Detectors
      21. Regularization Based Edge Detectors
      22. Roberts Cross Edge Detector
      23. Robinson Edge Detector
      24. Second Derivative Operators (including Zero Crossing)
      25. Subpixel Edge Detection (See Subpixel Methods)
      26. Walsh Function/O'Gorman Edge Detector
    9. Edge/Line/Contour Feature Following, Grouping, Linking and Tracking
      1. 4/6/8 Connectivity
      2. Contour Tracking
      3. Dynamic Programming
      4. Edge Linking
      5. Graph Searching
      6. Hough Transform (See Transforms: Hough)
      7. Hysteresis Tracking
      8. Paired Boundaries, Paired Contours
      9. Relaxation Linking
      10. Search Trees
      11. Subjective Contours / Illusory Contours
        1. Stochastic Completion Fields
    10. Global Structure Extraction
      1. Ribbons
      2. Salient Features
      3. Symmetry Lines (See also Symmetry)
      4. Symmetry Planes
    11. Feature Histograms
      1. Histogram Analysis
      2. Locally Orderless Images
      3. Multi-Dimensional Feature Histograms
      4. Pairwise Histograms
    12. Image Invariants
    13. Image Descriptors
      1. MPEG-7 Descriptors
      2. Dominant Color Descriptor
      3. Color Structure Descriptor
      4. Edge Histogram Descriptor
      5. Color Layout Descriptor
    14. Line Detection
      1. Image Ridges
    15. Mensuration
      1. Scene Object Size Estimation
      2. Subpixel/Superresolution Methods (See Subpixel Methods)
    16. Model-Based Feature Detection/Segmentation
    17. Point or Pixel Descriptions (See also Classification Transforms)
      1. Bar, Line Points
      2. Blob/Center-Surround Points
      3. Color Receptive Fields
      4. Gabor Filters
        1. Log-Gabor Filters
      5. Gaussian Derivatives
      6. Receptive Fields/Steerable Filters
      7. Semantic Texton Forest
      8. Steerable Pyramids
    18. Primal Sketch (See Marr's Theory)
    19. Region Detection
      1. Bayesian Network Methods (See Bayesian Networks)
      2. Boundary-Region Fusion
      3. Color/Spectrum Based/Chroma Keying/Bluescreen
      4. Facet Model-Based Extraction
      5. Maximally Stable Extremal Regions
      6. Region Boundary Extraction
      7. Salient Region Detection
      8. Superpixels
      9. Texture Based
      10. Methods
        1. Common Approaches
        2. Divide and Conquer
        3. Knowledge/Model Guided
        4. Recursive Splitting
        5. Region Growing
        6. Scale-Space
        7. Split and Merge
        8. Thresholding (See also more general Thresholding)
        9. Watersheds of Gradient Magnitude
        10. Waterfall Segmentation Hierarchy
    20. Ridge and Valley Detection
    21. Scanline Slices
    22. Skew Analysis and Estimation
    23. Spatial Relationship Detection
      1. Collinearity
      2. Coplanarity
      3. Intersection/Cotermination
      4. Relative Orientation
    24. Special Feature Extraction
      1. Focus of Expansion
      2. Ground Plane
      3. Horizon
      4. Occluding Contour Detection
      5. Vanishing Point
    25. Structure Tensor
    26. Surface Patches in Volumes
      1. Optimal Surface Detection
      2. Zucker-Hummel
    27. Surface Segmentation from 2 1/2D or 3D data
      1. Curvature-Based Surface Patch Detection (See also Principal Curvatures and Directions and other Local Shape Representations)
      2. Cylinder/Tubular Structure Detection
      3. Planar Facet/Triangulation Patch Detection
      4. Planar Surface Models
      5. Surface Clustering/Grouping
      6. Surface Discontinuity Detection
        1. Curvature
        2. Depth
        3. Surface Orientation
      7. Surface Fitting and Growing
        1. Cylinder Patch Extraction
        2. Planar Patch Extraction
        3. Quadric Patch Extraction
        4. Surface Shape Classification
      8. Surface Shape Parameter Estimation
        1. Cylinder
        2. Ellipsoid/Sphere
        3. Free-Form Surface
          1. Dual Surface Thin Shell Fitting
        4. Plane
        5. Quadric
        6. Torus
      9. Triangulation
    28. Surface Shape (Shape-From-X Methods)
      1. Contours/Silhouettes
      2. Defocus
      3. Focus
      4. Geometric Constraints
      5. Integrating Multiple Methods
      6. Line Drawings (See Line Drawings)
      7. Monocular Depth Cues
      8. Monocular Visual Space
      9. Motion
      10. Multiple Sensors (See Multi-Sensor Geometries)
      11. Perspective
      12. Photo-Consistency
      13. Photometric Motion
      14. Photometric Stereo
      15. Polarization
      16. Shading
      17. Shadows
      18. Specularities
      19. Structured Light
      20. Texture
      21. Texture Motion
      22. Zoom
    29. Texture
      1. Boundary Detection
      2. Classification
      3. Color Texture
      4. Fourier Descriptors
      5. Hierarchical Textures
      6. Shape Texture/Surface Roughness Characterization
      7. Structural/Syntactic Texture Representations
      8. Statistical Representations
        1. Co-occurrence, Cocurrence, Cooccurrence Matrices
        2. Edge Frequency
        3. Energy Measures
        4. Filter-based Descriptors
        5. Fractal Measures
        6. Histogram Methods
        7. Local Binary Patterns
        8. Local Ternary Patterns
        9. Markov Random Field Representations
        10. Moments of Intensity (See 2D Moments and their Invariants)
        11. Primitive Length, Run Length
        12. Spatial Frequency
      9. Texon/Texel Invariants and Representations
      10. Texture Field Grouping/Segmentation (See Texture-based Region Segmentation)
      11. Texture Gradients/Directions/Oriented Patterns
      12. Wavelet-based Texture Descriptors (See also the generic Wavelets)
    30. Topological Image Description
    31. Visual Routines, Empirical Feature Detectors
    32. Volume Detection
      1. Voxel Model Recovery
      2. Generalized Cylinder Detection
      3. Superquadric Detection
    33. Wavelet Feature Descriptors (See also the generic Wavelets)
      1. Wavelet Moment Invariants
  6. Vision Geometry and Mathematics
    1. Basic Representations
      1. Coordinate Systems
        1. Cartesian: Affine, Rectangular
        2. Cylindrical
        3. Hexagonal
        4. Log-Polar
        5. Mean Value Coordinates
        6. Polar
        7. Spherical
      2. Digital Topology
      3. Dual Space
      4. Homogeneous Coordinates
      5. Pose/Rotation/Orientation Representations
        1. Axis-angle
        2. Clifford Algebra
        3. Euler Angles
        4. Exponential Map
        5. Quaternion/Dual-Quaternion
        6. Rotation Matrix (See also Homogeneous Coordinates)
        7. Rotation/Slant/Tilt
        8. Yaw/Pitch/Roll
    2. Distance Metrics
      1. Affine
      2. Algebraic
      3. Bhattacharyya
      4. Chi-squared
      5. Curse of dimensionality
      6. Earth Mover's/Optimal Mass Transport/Monge-Kantorovich
      7. Euclidean
      8. Fuzzy Intersection
      9. Hausdorff
      10. Jeffrey-Divergence
      11. Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KL)
      12. Mahalanobis
      13. Manhatten or city-block
      14. Minkowski-form
      15. Procrustes
      16. Procrustes Average
      17. Quadric Form
      18. Specific Structure Similarity
        1. Curve Similarity
        2. Region Similarity
        3. Volume Similarity
    3. Elementary Mathematics for Vision
      1. Coordinate Systems, Vectors, Matrices, Derivatives and Gradients, Probability
      2. Derivatives in sampled images
    4. Function Optimization
      1. 1D Function Optimization and Golden Section
      2. Constrained Optimization and Lagrange Multipliers
      3. Multi-Dimensional Optimization
        1. Derivative Free Search
        2. Global Optimization
          1. Ant Colony Optimization
          2. Downhill Simplex
          3. Genetic Algorithms (See Genetic Algorithms/Programming)
          4. Graduated Non-Convexity and Multi-Resolution Methods
          5. Markov Random Field Optimization
          6. Particle Swarm Optimization
          7. Simulated Annealing
        3. Optimization With Derivatives
          1. Levenberg-Marquardt
          2. Newton and Gradient Descent Algorithms
      4. Optimization Model Selection
      5. Variational Methods
    5. Linear Algebra for Computer Vision
      1. Eigenfunctions
      2. Eigenvalues/Eigenvectors
      3. Principal Component and Related Approaches
        1. Dimensionality Reduction
        2. Discriminant Analysis
        3. Factor Analysis
        4. Fisher Linear Discriminant Transformation
        5. Independent Component Analysis
        6. Kernel Linear Discriminant Analysis
        7. Kernel Principal Component Analysis
        8. Locality Preserving Projections
        9. Non-Negative Matrix Factorization
        10. Optimal Dimension Estimation
        11. Principal Component Analysis/Karhunen-Loeve transformation
        12. Principal Geodesic Analysis (PGA)
        13. Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis
        14. Rao-Blackwell Dimensionality Reduction
      4. Sammon Mapping
      5. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)
      6. Structure Tensor
    6. Multi-Sensor/Multi-View Geometries
      1. 3D Reconstruction
        1. 2D Projections
        2. Reconstruction from Multiple Images/Orthogonal Views
        3. Slice-based Reconstruction (e.g. PET/CAT/MRI)
      2. Affine and Projective Stereo
      3. Baseline
        1. Narrow Baseline Stereo
        2. Wide Baseline Stereo
      4. Binocular Stereo Algorithms
        1. Cooperative Algorithms
        2. Disparity
          1. Subpixel Disparity
        3. Dense Stereo Matching Approaches
        4. Dynamic Programming
        5. Feature Matching Stereo Algorithms
        6. Gradient Matching Stereo Algorithms
        7. Image Rectification
          1. Planar Rectification
          2. Polar Rectification
        8. Log-Polar Stereo
        9. Multi-Scale Stereo Algorithms
        10. Panoramic Image Stereo Algorithms
        11. Phase Matching Stereo Algorithms
        12. Region Matching Stereo Algorithms
        13. Weakly/Uncalibrated Approaches
        14. Spherical Stereo
      5. Epipolar/Multi-View Geometry
        1. Absolute Conic
        2. Absolute Quadric
        3. Epipolar Geometry Definitions
        4. Essential Matrix
        5. Fundamental Matrix
        6. Grassmannian Space/Plucker Embedding
        7. Homography Tensor
        8. Transfer and Novel View Synthesis
        9. Trifocal/Quadrifocal Tensor
      6. Image Based Modelling/Plenoptic Modelling
      7. Image Feature Correspondence Constraints
        1. Active Stereo
        2. Disparity Gradient Limit
        3. Disparity Limit
        4. Epipolar Constraint
        5. Feature Contrast
        6. Feature Orientation
        7. Grey-level Similarity
        8. Lipschitz Continuity
        9. Ordering
        10. Surface Continuity
        11. Surface Smoothness
        12. Uniqueness
        13. Viewpoint Constraint
        14. View Consistency Constraint
      8. Multi-View Matching
      9. Scene Reconstruction/Surface Interpolation
        1. Adaptive Meshing
        2. Constrained Reconstruction
        3. Membrane/Thin Plate Models
        4. Texture Mapping
        5. Triangulation
        6. Volumetric Reconstruction
      10. Trinocular (and more) Stereo
    7. Parameter Estimation
      1. Bayesian Methods
      2. Constrained Least Squares
      3. Linear Least Squares
      4. Optimization (See Functional Optimization)
      5. Robust Techniques (See Robust Estimators)
    8. Probability and Statistics for Computer Vision
      1. Autoregression
      2. Basic Statistics and Bayes Rule in Vision
      3. Bayesian Inference Networks (See generic entry)
      4. Causal Models
      5. Correlation
      6. Covariance and Mahalanobis Distance in Vision
      7. Dempster-Shafer and Evidence Theory
      8. Distribution Mode Analysis
      9. Gaussian / Normal Distribution
      10. Heteroscedastic Noise and HEIV Regression
      11. Homoscedastic Noise
      12. Hidden Markov Models
      13. Honest Probabilities
      14. Hypothesis Testing
      15. Information Theory
      16. Kalman Filters
        1. Unscented Kalman Filter
      17. Kernel Canonical Correlation
      18. Kernel Regression
      19. Least Mean Square Estimation and Estimators
      20. Least Median Square Estimation and Estimators
      21. Log-Normal Distribution
      22. Logistic Regression
      23. Maximum Likelihood
      24. Model Fitting
      25. Monte Carlo Methods for Vision
      26. Marked Point Process
      27. Markov Chain Methods for Vision
      28. Markov Random Fields
        1. Applications
        2. Conditional Random Fields
        3. Multi-level MRF
        4. Optimization Methods
          1. Approximate Variational Extremum
          2. Gibbs Sampling
          3. Graduated Nonconvexity
          4. Graph Cuts
          5. Iterated Conditional Modes
          6. "Modern" Graph Cut
          7. Simulated Annealing
        5. Theory
      29. Mixture Models and Expectation Maximization (EM)
        1. Poisson Mixture Model
      30. Normalization
      31. Non-Parametric Methods
      32. Poisson Distribution
      33. Probability Density Estimation
      34. Random Number Generation for Vision
      35. Robust Estimators
      36. Useful Distributions
    9. Projection Geometries and Transformations
      1. Affine
      2. Anamorphic/Catadioptric
      3. Central Projection
      4. Euclidean
      5. Homography
      6. Hierarchy of Geometries
      7. Orthographic
      8. Paraperspective
      9. Perspective
      10. Plane Projection
      11. Projective Space (3D)
      12. Real Camera Projection
      13. Similarity
      14. Weak-Perspective
    10. Properties and Invariants of Projection
      1. Absolute Points
      2. Affine Invariants
      3. Collineations
      4. Conics
      5. Coplanarity Invariants
      6. Cross Ratio
      7. Differential Invariants
      8. Duality
      9. General Projective Invariants
      10. Integral Invariants
      11. Laguerre Formula
      12. Pencil of Lines
      13. Quasi-Invariants
      14. Structural Invariants
    11. Relational Shape Descriptions
      1. Curves
        1. Adjacency/Connectedness
        2. Relative Curvature
        3. Relative Length
        4. Relative Orientation
        5. Separation
      2. Regions
        1. Adjacency/Connectedness
        2. Relative Area/Size
        3. Separation
      3. Surfaces
        1. Adjacency/Connectedness
        2. Relative Area/Size
        3. Relative Orientation
        4. Separation
      4. Volumes
        1. Adjacency/Connectedness
        2. Relative Orientation
        3. Relative Volume/Size
        4. Separation
    12. Shape Properties (See also Geometric Representation of Model Features)
      1. Geometric Morphometrics
      2. Kendall's Shape Space
      3. Points and Local Invariants
      4. Curves and Curve Invariants (See also Curves)
        1. Affine Arc Length and Affine Curvature
        2. Arc Length
        3. Bending Energy
        4. Chord Distribution
        5. Curvature, Torsion, Curvature Radius
        6. Differential Geometry, Frenet Frame, Frenet-Serret Formulas
        7. Invariant Points: Inflections/Bitangents
      5. Image Regions and Region Invariants
        1. Angularity ratio
        2. Area, Perimeter
        3. Boundary Properties
        4. Center-of-Mass
        5. Convexity Ratio
        6. Eccentricity, Circularity, Compactness, Elongatedness
        7. Elongation Factor
        8. Euler number/Genus
        9. Extremal Points
        10. Feret's Diameter, Martin's Diameter
        11. Fourier Descriptors
        12. Minimum Bounding Rectangle
        13. 2D Moments and their Invariants
          1. Affine Moments
          2. Bessel-Fourier Moments
          3. Binary Moments
          4. Color Moments
          5. Eigenmoments
          6. Fourier-Mellin Moment Invariants
          7. Gaussian-Hermite Moments
          8. Grey-Level or Texture Moments
          9. Hahn Moments
          10. Krawtchouk Moments
          11. Legendre Moments
          12. Orthogonal Moments: Legendre, Zernike
          13. Racah Moments
          14. Tchebichef/Chebichev Moments
          15. Velocity Moments
          16. Zernike Moments
        14. Orientation
        15. Sphericity ratio
        16. Rectangularity
        17. Rectilinearity
        18. Roundness ratio
        19. Topological Descriptors
        20. Wadell's circularity shape ratio
      6. Surfaces
        1. Apparent Contour and Local Geometry
        2. Common Shape Classes and Representations
          1. Cone
          2. Cyclide
          3. Cylinder
          4. Ellipsoid/Sphere
          5. Membrane/Thin Plate Spline (See here)
          6. Plane
          7. Polyhedra
          8. Quadric
          9. Torus
        3. Fundamental Forms
        4. Gauge Coordinates
        5. Hessian
        6. Laplace-Beltrami Operator
        7. Metric Determinant
        8. Principal Curvatures and Directions and other Local Shape Representations
          1. Deviation from Flatness
          2. Gauss-Bonnet Surface Description
          3. Gaussian Curvature
          4. Koenderink's Shape Classification
          5. Mean Curvature
          6. Mean and Gaussian Curvature Shape Classification
          7. Minimal Points
          8. Parabolic Points
          9. Ridges and Valleys
          10. Umbilics
        9. Quadratic Variation
        10. Ricci Flow
        11. Surface Area
        12. Surface Normals and Tangent Planes/Tangent Spaces
        13. Surface Orientation and Gradient Space
      7. Symmetry (See also Symmetry Detection)
        1. Affine
        2. Bilateral
        3. Rotation
        4. Skew
      8. Volumes
        1. Elongatedness
        2. 3D Moments and Moment Invariants
        3. Volume
    13. Transformations (Geometric), Registration and Pose Estimation Methods
      1. 2D to 2D Pose Estimation Methods
        1. Line-Based Methods
        2. Point-Based Methods
      2. 2D to 3D Pose Estimation Methods
        1. Line-Based Methods
        2. Point-Based Methods - PnP - Perspective N Point Problem
      3. 3D to 3D Pose Estimation Methods
        1. Line-Based Methods
        2. Point-Based Methods
      4. Affine Transformation
        1. Minimal Data Estimation
        2. Least-square Estimates
        3. Robust Estimates
      5. Bundle Adjustment
      6. Euclidean Transformation
        1. Least-square Euclidean Transformation Estimates
        2. Minimal Data Euclidean Transformation Estimation
        3. Robust Euclidean Transformation Estimates
      7. Homography Transformation
        1. Least-square Homography Transformation Estimates
        2. Minimal Data Estimation
        3. Robust Homography Transformation Estimates
      8. Kalman Filter Pose Estimation Methods
      9. Partially Constrained Pose
        1. Incomplete Information
        2. Intrinsic Degrees of Freedom
      10. Projective Transformation
        1. Least-square Estimates
        2. Minimal Data Estimation
        3. Robust Estimates
      11. Similarity Transformation
        1. Least-square Estimates
        2. Minimal Data Estimation
        3. Robust Estimates
  7. Image Physics
    1. Color and Reflectance
      1. Albedo, Irradiance, Radiance and Reflectance and their Estimation
      2. Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function
      3. Color, Appearance and Human Performance
        1. Illumination, Lightness and Color Constancy, Reflectance Recovery and Shading Correction
        2. Color Correction
        3. Color Normalization
      4. Color Representation Systems
        1. CIE Chromaticity Coordinates/XYZ
        2. Color Spaces, and Conversion. Eg. IHS/RGB/YIQ/CMY/CMYK/CMYB/HSL/HSI
        3. Principal Component Basis Space
        4. Color Mixture Models
      5. Dichromatic Reflection Model
      6. Empirical Color Representations
        1. Statistical Representations
        2. Basis Function Representations
      7. Photometric Invariants
      8. Reflectance Map
      9. Special Worlds
        1. Mondrian
        2. Monochrome
    2. Image Content, Structure and Formation
      1. Content and Formation
      2. Dimensionality
      3. Non-Rectangular Geometries
      4. Photometric content
        1. Gamma Correction
        2. Hue/White Balance and Correction
        3. Measurement and Quantigraphics
        4. Saturation and Correction
      5. Spatial Frequency and Sampling
      6. Value Quantization and Compression
    3. Light and Illumination
      1. Elementary physics
        1. Elementary Effects: Diffraction, Interference, Reflection, Refraction and Transmission
        2. Elementary Manipulation: Collimation, Diffraction gratings, Diffusion, Mirrors, Prisms, Transmission
        3. Standard Sources: Blackbody, Incandescent, Luminescent Sources, Sun
      2. Source Geometry
        1. Source Placement
        2. Source Shapes
          1. Area
          2. Diffuse
          3. Line
          4. Point
      3. Special Situations
        1. Illumination techniques for improving observation
        2. Mutual Illumination and Interreflections
        3. Polarization
        4. Shadows
        5. Spectral Filtering
        6. Summary of Different Light Sources
      4. Special Sources
        1. Acoustic Sonar
        2. Infrared
        3. Laser
        4. Scanning Electron Microscope
        5. Synthetic Aperture Radar
    4. Noise Models
      1. Distributions
        1. Gaussian
        2. Salt-and-Pepper
        3. Speckle
        4. Uniform
      2. Sources
        1. Amplifier Noise
        2. Heteroscedastic Noise
        3. KTC Noise
        4. On-chip Electronic Noise
        5. Photon Noise
        6. Quantization Noise
        7. Thermal Noise
    5. Optics and geometrical light manipulation
      1. Basic Geometric Optics
      2. Catadioptric Optics
      3. Focus Invariant Imaging
      4. Image Control: Focus, Aperture, Exposure/Shuttering, Gain, Offset
      5. Image Distortion (See Image Distortion, Models and Correction)
      6. Lenses and their Selection
      7. Telecentric Lenses
      8. Vignetting
    6. Sensor Response Physics
    7. Surface Shape Physics
      1. Empirical Surface Models
      2. Surface Classes
        1. Dusty
        2. Fractal Surfaces
        3. Lambertian
        4. Phong
        5. Specular
      3. Texture (See Texture)
  8. Image Transformations
    1. General
    2. Appearance Enhancement Transforms
      1. Artistic Effects
      2. Brightness Adjustment
      3. Contrast Adjustment (See also Histogram Equalization and Color Remapping)
      4. Edge Sharpening
      5. Histogram Equalization/Adaptive Histogram Equalization (See also Contrast Adjustment and Color Remapping)
      6. Quantile Normalization
      7. Saturation Adjustment
      8. Image Magnification (See Subsampling, Interpolation, Zooming)
    3. Distance and Skeleton
      1. Distance (2D, 3D)
      2. Eccentricity Transform
      3. Laplacian Eigenspace
      4. Medial Axis
      5. Principal Component Encoding (See Principal Component Analysis)
      6. Shock Filter, Shock Tree, Shock Graph
      7. Skeleton
      8. Smoothed Local Symmetries
    4. Geometric Transformations (See also Geometry and Mathematics)
      1. Euclidean: Rotate, Translate, Reflect
      2. Subsampling, Interpolation, Zooming
      3. Rectification (See Rectification)
      4. Scale, Shear, Affine, Perspective, Projective
      5. Warping
    5. Global Transforms
      1. Discrete Cosine/Sine
      2. Fourier
        1. Frequency Domain Filtering (See Frequency Filtering)
        2. Homomorphic Filtering
        3. Non-Uniform Fourier Transform
        4. Optical Image Processing
        5. Polar/Log Polar Fourier Transform
      3. Haar
      4. Hartley
      5. Hadamard/Walsh
      6. Histogram (See also Feature Histograms)
      7. Karhunen-Loeve or Hotelling (See Principal Component and Related Approaches)
      8. Radon, Mojette Transform
      9. Ridgelet
      10. Slant
      11. Trace
      12. Wavelet Transformations (See also the generic Wavelets)
    6. Image and Video Compression
      1. Adaptive Coding
      2. Arithmetic Coding
      3. Block Coding, GIF, TIFF, Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) Huffman encoding
      4. Color Image Compression
      5. Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM)
      6. Feature Extraction from Compressed Images (See also Compressed Image Feature Extraction)
      7. Fractal
      8. Hierarchical
      9. Image Quality Evaluation/Comparison
      10. JPEG
      11. Model-Based Coding
      12. Motion and Video Coding
      13. MPEG
      14. Predictive Methods (See also Differential Pulse Code Modulation)
      15. Run Length Compression
      16. Stereo Compression
      17. Vector Quantization (See general Vector Quantization)
      18. Wavelet/Scalar Quantization (WSQ)
    7. Image Stabilization
    8. Local Operator Transforms
      1. Adaptive Filtering
      2. Composite Filters
      3. Convolution
        1. Normalized Convolution
        2. Separable Templates
      4. Difference of Gaussians
      5. Differentiation Filtering
      6. Frequency Filtering
        1. General
        2. High Pass
        3. Low Pass
        4. Matched Filter
      7. Noise Reduction and Image Restoration (See also Image Restoration)
        1. Adaptive Smoothing
        2. Anisotropic Filtering
        3. Anscombe Transform
        4. Average/Mean Smoothing
        5. Bayesian Filtering
        6. Bilateral Filtering
        7. Brightness Distortion Correction
        8. Color Images
        9. Conservative Smoothing
        10. Crimmins
        11. Deconvolution/Inverse Convolution
        12. Diffusion Methods
        13. Edge-Preserving Smoothing
        14. Gaussian Smoothing
        15. Global Filters
        16. Kalman Filter Based Noise Reduction
        17. Kuwahara
        18. Lee's Local Statistics Filter
        19. Local Nonlinear Image Restoration
        20. Median Filtering
        21. Median Flow Filtering
        22. Median Least Variance/Median Coefficient of Variation Filters
        23. Monte Carlo Markov Chain Restoration
        24. Multichannel/Multispectral Filtering
        25. Other Smoothing Algorithms
        26. PDE, Diffusion Methods
          1. Geometric Heat Flow
          2. Tangential Diffusion
        27. Rank Order Filtering (See also Median Filtering)
        28. Savitzky-Golay Filtering
        29. Scale-Space Filtering (See Scale Space)
        30. Spline Filtering
        31. Temporal Averaging
        32. Wiener Filtering
    9. Morphological Transformations
      1. Binary Noise Reduction
      2. Boolean Convolution
      3. Conditional Dilation
      4. Dilate, Erode
      5. Fuzzy Morphology or Soft Morphology
      6. Greylevel, Greyscale Morphology
        1. Greylevel, Greyscale Morphological Dilation, Erosion, Umbra Dilation, Umbra Erosion
        2. Greylevel, Greyscale Morphological Gradient
        3. Greylevel, Greyscale Morphological Laplacian
        4. Greylevel, Greyscale Morphological Opening, Closing
        5. Greylevel, Greyscale Morphological Smoothing
      7. Hit-and-Miss
      8. Morphological Segmentation
      9. Open, Close
      10. Region-Filling, Propagation
      11. Thin, Thicken (2D, 3D)
      12. Top Hat Transform
      13. Watershed Transform
    10. Pixel Classification (Value-to-Label) Transforms (See also Classification Methods)
      1. Color, Multispectral Based
      2. Curvature, Shape Based (See Curvature-Based Surface Patch Detection)
      3. Edge Type Labeling
      4. Intensity Based
      5. Mixed Pixel Labeling
      6. Shadow Type Labeling
      7. Texture Based
    11. Point Binary Image Operator Transforms
      1. Image Arithmetic
        1. Addition
        2. Bitshift
        3. Blending
        4. Division
        5. Multiplication
        6. Subtraction
      2. Image Logic
        1. AND/NAND
        2. NOT/INVERT
        3. OR/NOR
        4. XOR/XNOR
    12. Point Unary Image Operator Transforms
      1. Clipping
      2. Color Remapping
      3. Logarithmic, Exponential, Gamma Correction
      4. Ordinal Transformation
      5. Thresholding
        1. Adaptive Thresholding
        2. Edge Image Thresholding
        3. Multi-Spectral Thresholding
        4. Quantization Techniques
        5. Threshold Selection
    13. Segmentation, Grouping Transforms
      1. Property Basis
        1. Color (See Color/Spectrum Based Segmentation)
        2. Intensity (See Region Detection -> Thresholding)
        3. Motion (See Motion Field->Region Segmentation/Decomposition)
        4. Surface Shape (See Curvature-Based Surface Patch Detection)
        5. Texture (See Texture-based Region Segmentation)
      2. Structures
        1. Curve (See Boundary/Line/Curve Segmentation)
        2. Region (See Region Detection)
        3. Surface (See Surface Segmentation from 2 1/2D or 3D data)
        4. Volume
      3. Technologies
        1. Clustering (See Clustering)
        2. Connected Components/Blob Extraction (See Connected Components Labelling)
        3. Model-Based (See Model-Based Feature Detection/Segmentation)
        4. Minimum Description Length (See Minimum Description Length)
        5. Region Growing (See Regions-> Region Growing or Surfaces->Surface Fitting and Growing)
        6. Relaxation (See Relaxation)
        7. Rule-Based/Expert-System Based
        8. Thresholding (See Unary Operators)
  9. Motion and Time Sequence Analysis

    Introduction

    1. Active Vision
      1. Kinetic Depth
      2. Feature Stabilization
      3. Surface Reconstruction
      4. Time-To-Contact
      5. Visual Servoing
    2. Appearance Change Analysis
    3. Change and Moving Object Detection
      1. Background Modelling
      2. Change Detection in Compressed Image/Video Data
      3. Change Detection in Non-Standard Images: Panoramic, Omnidirectional
      4. Detection with a Changing Background
      5. Foreground Modelling
      6. Image Differencing (Foward and Backward Temporal Comparison)
      7. Moving Camera Change Detection
      8. Shadow Removal, Moving Shadow Detection
    4. Depth/Range Image Temporal Sequence Analysis
    5. Image Sequence Fusion
      1. Mosaics (See Image Mosaics)
      2. Stabilization (See Image Stabilization)
      3. Superresolution
    6. Motion Field
      1. Depth Estimation
      2. Edge, Discontinuity Detection
      3. Extraction
      4. Hierarchical Estimation
      5. Region Segmentation/Decomposition
        1. Motion Layer/Multiple Motion Segmentation
    7. Motion Property Estimation
      1. General Motion Estimation
      2. Observer Motion, Egomotion Estimation
      3. Periodicity Estimation
      4. Planar Motion Estimation
      5. Pure Rotation Estimation
      6. Pure Translation Estimation, Linear Motion Constraints
    8. Non-Rigid Motion Analysis
      1. Human Pose and Motion Estimation
    9. Optical Flow
      1. Affine Flow
      2. Aperture Problem
      3. Area Based Methods
      4. Binocular Methods
      5. Boundary, Discontinuity Estimation
      6. Contour Based Methods
      7. Color Optical Flow
      8. Correlation Based Flow Estimation
      9. Feature Based Flow Estimation
      10. Flow Field Calculation
      11. Flow Histogram
      12. Gradient Based Flow Estimation
      13. Information Extraction
        1. Egomotion
        2. Epipole Location
        3. Focus of Expansion
        4. Obstacle Detection
      14. Multi-Grid Methods
      15. Normal Flow
      16. Optical Flow Constraint Equation
      17. Optical Flow Smoothness Constraint
      18. Range Flow
      19. Scene Flow/Surface Motion
      20. Special Case Motions
      21. Structure from Optical Flow
    10. Sensor, Camera Motion Estimation
    11. Spatio-Temporal Analysis
      1. Epipolar Plane Analysis
      2. Spatio-Temporal Corner/Interest Point Detector
      3. Spatio-Temporal Filters
      4. Representations (see also Motion Models)
        1. Small Motion Models
        2. FAST: spatio-temporal interest point detector
      5. Temporal Shape Matching
        1. Spatio-Temporal Relationship Match (SRM)
        2. Temporal Geometric Shape Model Matching
        3. Temporal Property Model Matching
      6. Temporal Spatio-Velocity transform
    12. Structure from Motion/Structure and Motion
      1. Articulated Object Segmentation
      2. Classical Structure from Motion
      3. Model-based Shape and Motion Capture
      4. Multi-Frame Structure Estimation
        1. Critical Motions
        2. Initialization
        3. Metrical (or Euclidean) Reconstruction
      5. Nonlinear Recursive Methods
      6. Rigid Body Segmentation
      7. Rigidity Constraint
      8. Structure Consistency Constraint
      9. Structure Factorization
        1. Factorization with Uncertainty
      10. Surface Reconstruction
      11. Temporal Factorization
    13. Temporal Event Analysis (See also Temporal Representations)
      1. Activity Analysis
        1. Action Temporal Segmentation
        2. Instantaneous Activity Recognition
        3. Long Term Activity
          1. Hidden Markov Model Matching
          2. Hidden Semi-Markov Model Matching
          3. Rule-Based/Syntactic Model Matching
          4. Trajectory Model Matching
      2. Novelty/Unusual Event Detection
      3. Self-Similarity Matrix
    14. Tracking
      1. Articulated Object Tracking
      2. Binocular Tracking
      3. Discontinuous Events
      4. Feature Tracking Approaches
        1. Active Contour Tracking
        2. Appearance-based Tracking
        3. Edge Tracking
        4. Fiducial/Marker Tracking
        5. Model-Based Tracking
        6. Optical Flow-based Target Tracking
        7. Pose Based Tracking
        8. Scene Feature Based Tracking
        9. Template/Correlation Based Tracking
        10. Temporal Stereo
        11. Texture-Based Tracking
      5. Moving Camera Based Tracking
      6. Multiple Target Tracking
        1. Feature Based Tracking
        2. Optical Flow Analysis
        3. Template Based Tracking
      7. Target Tracking Approaches
        1. Detection by Background Differencing (See Change Detection)
        2. Detection Regions
        3. Persisence Through Occlusion
        4. Target Correspondence
      8. Tracking Information Fusion
        1. Condensation/Particle Filter Tracking
        2. Tracking Using Bayesian belief propagation
        3. Tracking Using Hidden Markov Models
        4. Tracking Using Kalman Filters
      9. Vergence Maintenance
  10. Hardware, DSP, Parallel and Other Non-Standard Processing Platforms
    1. Cellular/Systolic Arrays
    2. DSP (Digital Signal Processors) Approaches
    3. Neural Networks
      1. Hopfield Networks
      2. Kohonen Networks
      3. Perceptron Networks
      4. Radial Basis Functions Networks (See Radial Basis Function Networks)
      5. Support Vector Machines
    4. Parallel Processing Approaches
      1. Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD)/Multi-Processor
        1. Data Parallelism/Domain Decomposition
        2. Pipeline/Subtask Parallelism
        3. Task Farming
      2. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD)
        1. Massively Parallel Systems
        2. Pyramid Architectures
      3. Vector Processors
    5. Programmable Logic Approaches
      1. Reconfigurable Mesh
    6. VLSI Approaches
      1. Retina Chips
  11. Object, World and Scene Representations
    1. General
    2. Full Object Representations
      1. Flat
      2. Hierarchical, By Parts, Structural Decomposition, Subcomponent Representation
    3. Functional Representations
    4. Geometric Representation of Model Features (See also Shape Properties)
      1. CAD Representations
      2. Curves
        1. Chain Codes
        2. Circles
        3. Conics
        4. Contour Parametric and Contour Complex Functions
        5. Crack Codes
        6. Curvature Primal Sketch
        7. Curvature Scale Space
        8. Curve Cross Section Functions
        9. Edgelet, Contourlet
        10. Ellipses
        11. Fourier Descriptors
        12. Intrinsic Equations
        13. Lines
        14. Line Moments
        15. Phi-S Curves, Tangent Angle Functions
        16. Polyline, Polycurves, Polygonal Approximations
        17. Radius Vector Functions
        18. Signatures
        19. Snakes, Active Contours (See also Active Shape Models)
          1. Gradient Flow Vector Snakes
        20. Splines
        21. Superellipses
        22. Supershapes
        23. Support Functions
        24. Torsion, Curvature
        25. Torsion Scale Space
        26. Wavelet-based Curve Descriptors (See also the generic Wavelets)
        27. Width Functions
      3. Points
        1. Local Point Invariants
        2. Local Scale Descriptions
        3. Non-Linear Point Distribution Models
        4. Point Distribution Models
        5. Surflet
      4. Regions
        1. Axial Representations (Medial Axis, Skeletons, Smoothed Local Symmetry)
          1. Affine Invariant Skeletons
        2. Convex Hull
        3. Region Cross Section Functions
        4. Delaunay Triangulation/Voronoi Diagrams
        5. Grey-Level Distribution Models
          1. Central Moments
        6. Kendall's Shape Representation
        7. Pixel, Quadtrees/Irregular Quadtrees, Occupancy Grids
        8. Polygons
        9. Profiles/Projections
        10. Pyramids (See Image Pyramids and Scale Reduction)
        11. Region Graph Representations
        12. Run-length Coding
        13. Subcomponent Decompositions
        14. Topological Representations
        15. Trees
      5. Surfaces
        1. Algebraic Point Set Surfaces
        2. Common Surface Representations (See geometry)
        3. Conformal Mapping
        4. Local Point/Patch Representations
        5. Mean and Gaussian Curvature Sign Classes
        6. Membranes, Rubber Sheets and Thin Plates, and their Discontinuities
        7. Planar Patches/Faces, Edges and Vertices/Boundary Representations
        8. Principal Curvature Sign Classes
        9. Quadric Patches
        10. Shape, Curvature Magnitude Classes
        11. Sparse Tensors (Mian)
        12. Spherical Attribute Image
        13. Spline Surfaces
        14. Surface Triangulations/Meshes (Fixed, Adaptive, Deformable)
      6. Object Centered Representations
      7. Objects/Volumes
        1. 3D Skeletons
        2. Aspect Graph
        3. Balloons
        4. Constructive Solid Geometry/Set-Theoretic Modeling
        5. Gaussian Sphere/Extended Gaussian Image/Constellation EGI
        6. Generalized Cones/Cylinders
        7. Geons
        8. Hyperquadrics
        9. Medial Surfaces
        10. Quadrics
        11. Shape Distribution
        12. Shape Histogram
        13. Spin Images
          1. Spherical Spin Images
        14. Spherical Harmonics
        15. Superquadrics
        16. Supershapes
        17. Surface Patches
        18. Tetrahedral
        19. Volumetric Frequency
        20. Voxel, Octree/Irregular Octree, Occupancy Grid
        21. Wire-frames
    5. Logical and Symbolic Representations
      1. Frames
      2. "Knowledge Representation" Languages
      3. Predicate Calculus
      4. Relational
      5. Semantic Nets
    6. Motion Representations
    7. Multi-Scale Representation Approaches
      1. Fractals (See the generic Fractals)
      2. Scale Space (See the generic Scale Space)
      3. Wavelets (See the generic Wavelets)
    8. Non-Rigid Model Representations (see also Point Distribution Models)
      1. Active Appearance Models
      2. Active Shape Models
      3. Deformable Shapes
        1. Curves (See Snakes, Active Contours)
        2. Regions
        3. Surfaces
        4. Volumes
      4. Linear Structure Models
      5. Motion Models
      6. Parametric Models
      7. Piecewise Rigidity
      8. Time Varying Shape, Spatio-Temporal Models
    9. Non-Symbolic Representations
      1. Eigenspace / Principal Component Representations
      2. Interest Points
      3. Intrinsic Images
      4. Plenoptic Function Representations/Lightfields/Image-Based Rendering
    10. Procedural Representations
      1. Production Rules
      2. Visual Routines
    11. Shape Classes/Shape Families
    12. Temporal Representations (See also Temporal Event Analysis)
      1. Short-term Activity Representations
        1. Motion History/Energy Models
        2. Volume Motion Template
      2. Long-term Activity Representations
        1. Global Representations
        2. Frame-by-frame Models
          1. Hidden Markov/Finite State Models
          2. Target Trajectory Models
    13. Types of Models
      1. Appearance
      2. Aspect (See Aspects/Characteristic Views)
      3. Iconic (See Iconic Image Models)
      4. Geometric
      5. Graphs (See Graph)
      6. Relational
      7. Property
    14. Viewpoint Dependent, Viewer Centered Representations
      1. Iconic Image Models
      2. Aspects/Characteristic Views
      3. Singularity Events
      4. Tessellated Viewsphere Approximations
  12. Recognition Methods

    High level vision

    1. Classification Methods (see also Distance Metrics and Pixel Classification (Value-to-Label) Transforms)
      1. Bayesian
      2. Contextual Methods
      3. Decision Trees, Sequential Classifiers
      4. Discriminating Feature Methods
      5. Fuzzy
      6. Hough Forest
      7. K-Nearest Neighbor
      8. Linear and Higher Order Discriminant Functions
      9. Markov Random Field Based
      10. Minimum Distance
      11. Multi-Classifier Fusion
      12. Neural Network and Perceptron Methods (See Neural Networks)
      13. Sparse Coding
      14. Vector Quantization Based (See general Vector Quantization)
    2. Function-based Recognition
    3. General Reasoning Methods used in Vision
    4. Geometric Model Matching, Feature Correspondence, Shape Correspondence
      1. General Matching Control and Search Algorithms
        1. Generate and Test/Hypothesize and Verify
        2. Heuristic Search
        3. Hierarchical Methods/By Parts/Recognition by Components
        4. Interpretation Tree and Other Search Tree Variations
        5. Rule-Based Systems
        6. Theorem Proving
      2. General Matching and Registration Methods
        1. Appearance, Iconic, and View-Based Recognition, Video Google
        2. Boltzmann Machine, Hopfield Network, Simulated Annealing
        3. Constraint-Based Matching
        4. Context
        5. Deformable, Deformable Templates, Elastic Matching
        6. Factorization
        7. Fourier Matched Filter Object Recognition
        8. Generalized Hough Transform (See Generalized Hough Transform)
        9. Geometric Hashing
        10. Image Alignment and Registration (See also Mosaicing)
        11. Inverse Compositional Method
        12. Iterated Closest Point/Iterative Closest Point (ICP)
        13. MAPSAC
        14. Model Based Recognition
        15. Multi-Scale Feature Matching
        16. Non-rigid Alignment
        17. Object Category Recognition
          1. Bag of Words/Features
          2. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis
          3. Structured Models
          4. Subcategory Recognition
          5. Vocabulary Tree
        18. Object Size/Scale/Distance Estimation
        19. Part Alignment/Pose Estimation
        20. Polygon Matching
        21. Pose Clustering
        22. RANSAC
        23. Relaxation Labeling (See Relaxation)
        24. Softassign algorithm
        25. Structural Description
        26. Template and Cross-Correlation Matching
          1. Gain and Bias Independent
          2. Inverse Compositional Method
      3. Geometric Constraints
      4. Global Methods
    5. Identity Verification/Alignment
      1. Geometric Feature Proximity
      2. Pose Consistency
    6. Model Based Indexing, Invocation
    7. Special Feature Matching
      1. 2D to 2D Point Features
        1. Proximity Matrices
      2. 2D to 3D Point Features
      3. 3D to 3D Point Features
      4. 2D, 3D Point to Structure Matching
      5. Aspect Graph Matching
      6. Boundary/Contour/Curve/Edge Matching
      7. Line Matching
      8. Property-Based Matching (e.g. moments, eigenvalues, invariants - see Classification Methods)
      9. Optical/Appearance Flow Matching
      10. Polygon Matching
      11. Needle-Map Matching
      12. Region Matching
      13. Spatial Pyramid Matching
      14. Surface Matching
      15. Texture Matching or Classification
      16. Volume Matching
    8. Syntactic Pattern Matching
      1. 1D/String matching
      2. 2D/Pattern Grammars
  13. Scene Understanding
    1. Affordance Understanding
    2. Appearance Prediction
    3. Figure-Ground Separation (See also Change and Moving Object Detection)
    4. High level vision
    5. Light Source Detection
    6. Line Labeling
    7. Occlusion Understanding and Recovery
    8. Perceptual Organization, Grouping
      1. Hierarchical Organization
      2. Subcomponent Detection
    9. Plan and Property Search
    10. Types of Scene
      1. Manhatten World Scenes
    11. Region labeling
    12. Scene Completion
    13. Shadow Understanding
  14. Sensor Fusion, Registration and Planning
    1. Fusion and Registration Types
      1. CT/CAT, MRI/NMR, PET
      2. Motion and Depth
      3. Range and Intensity
      4. SAR and Digital Maps
      5. Visible and Infrared
    2. Information Fusion
    3. Multi-Image Intensity Image Registration
    4. Multi-View Range Data Registration and Fusion
    5. Next View Planning/Prediction
    6. Sensor Networks
      1. Network Calibration
      2. Distributed Target Tracking & Fusion
    7. Sensor Path Planning
    8. Simultaneous Localization and Map-building/SLAM
    9. Static Sensor Placement/Parameter Determination
    10. Statistical Fusion and Kalman Filters
  15. Standard Sensors and their Properties
    1. General
    2. Analog Signal Shaping and Quantization
    3. Analog / Mixed Analog-Digital Image Processing
    4. Computational Photography/Cameras
      1. Computational illumination
      2. Computational optics
    5. Hologram, Digital Hologram
    6. Image Storage Devices
    7. Intensity Sensors and their Properties
      1. Atomic Force Microscopy
      2. Compressive Sensing
      3. High Dynamic Range Sensors
      4. Intelligent Image Capture
      5. Linear/Linescan Sensors
      6. Monochrome and Color Tube Sensors
      7. Monochrome and Color Chip Sensors
      8. Non-standard intensity sensors
        1. Hyperspectral Sensors
        2. Infrared Sensors
        3. Millimeter Imaging
        4. Multispectral Satellite Sensors
        5. Nanoscale Imaging
        6. Ultraviolet Sensors
        7. X-Ray
          1. Digital Radiography
          2. Digital Panoramic Radiography
    8. NMR/MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
      1. Diffusion Tensor Imaging
      2. fMRI
    9. Optical Coherence Tomography
    10. PET - Positron Emission Tomography
    11. Radar
      1. Forward Looking
      2. Ground Penetrating
      3. Side Looking
      4. Synthetic Aperture
    12. Range Sensors
      1. Moire Fringe
        1. Color
        2. Intensity
        3. Phase Unwrapping Techniques
      2. Occluding Contour Analysis
      3. Phase Shift Range Sensors
      4. Time-of-Flight Range Sensors
      5. Triangulation
      6. Video Rate Range
        1. Dense Stereo-based
        2. Structured Light Based
    13. Sensor Geometries
      1. Regular
        1. Cartesian Grid
        2. Hexagonal
        3. Linear
      2. Space Varying
        1. Irregular
        2. Log-Polar/Foveal
      3. Viewfield
        1. Omnidirectional
          1. Catadioptric
          2. Concave Mirror
          3. Spherical Mirror
        2. Panoramic
        3. Small Field
        4. Wide Angle, Fisheye
    14. SPECT - Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
    15. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
    16. Ultrasound/Acoustic Sonar
      1. Medical
      2. Robotic
      3. Undersea
    17. Video/Television Transmission Formats
      1. RS-170/NTSC (US)
      2. CCIR/PAL (W. Europe)
      3. SECAM (E. Europe)
    18. X-Ray CAT/CT
  16. System Models, Calibration and Parameter Estimation
    1. Camera Calibration
      1. Binocular, Multi-camera, Moving Camera
        1. Autocalibration, Self-Calibration
          1. Critical Motions, Relations, Scenes
          2. Zoom Lens Calibration
        2. Using Calibration Targets
      2. Monocular
    2. Hand-Eye Calibration and Coordination (See also Visual Servoing)
    3. Illumination Field Calibration
    4. Image Distortion, Models and Correction
      1. Chromatic Aberration
      2. Defocus Blur
      3. Diffraction/Interference Fringes
      4. Filter "Ringing"
      5. Fish-eye Lens
      6. Motion Blur
      7. Radial Lens Distortion (also called Barrel/Pillow Distortion)
      8. Underwater Lens Calibration
    5. Pinhole Camera, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Camera Models
    6. Radiometric Calibration
    7. Structured Light Source Calibration
  17. Visual Learning
    1. Behavior Learning
      1. Discrete
      2. Probabilistic
    2. Geometric Feature Learning
    3. Joint Natural Language and Image Data Learning
    4. Learning Technologies
      1. Bayesian / Probabilistic Model Learning
        1. Bayesian Principal Component Analysis (See Principal Component and Related Approaches)
        2. Latent Variable Methods
        3. Variational Bayes
      2. Clustering
        (See also Classifiers and Distance Metrics)
        1. Fuzzy
        2. Graph Based Clustering
        3. Hierarchical
        4. K-Means
          1. Hierarchical K-Means
        5. Mean-shift
        6. Neural Gas Clustering
        7. Parametric and Non-Parametric
        8. Pattern Matrices
        9. Proximity Matrices
        10. Self-Organizing Feature Maps/Kohonen Networks
        11. Superparamagnetic Clustering
      3. EM: Expectation Maximization
      4. Ensemble methods
        1. Bagging
        2. Boosting
          1. AdaBoost
          2. DenseBoost
          3. TextonBoost
        3. Extremely Random Trees (Extra-trees)
        4. Random Forests
        5. Vector Boosting
      5. Feature Selection
      6. Gaussian Process Learning and Classification
      7. Genetic Algorithms/Genetic Programming (See Genetic Algorithms/Programming)
      8. Neural Networks (See Neural Networks)
      9. Principal Component Analysis (See Principal Component and Related Approaches)
      10. Support Vector Machines
        1. Kernel Methods
        2. Kernel Trick
        3. Structured SVM
        4. Relevance Vector Machine
      11. Semi-Supervised Learning
      12. Vector Quantization
    5. Shape Model Learning
      1. Range Data Fusion
      2. Space Carving
      3. Structural Learning
        1. Architectural Models
      4. Volumetric Model Recovery
      5. Voxel Coloring
    6. Property Learning
      1. Spatial-Temporal Patterns

    © 2010 Robert Fisher

  18. Visual Neurophysiology

    Visionary: A useful glossary of psychological and neurophysiological vision terms.
    Wikipedia neuroscience portal

    1. Cross-Modal Linkages
      1. Audition
      2. Olfaction
      3. Touch
      4. Reaching
      5. Language
      6. Synesthesia
    2. Experimental Techniques
      1. Lesion Studies
      2. Agnosias
      3. Staining/Histology
      4. Electrophysiology
        1. Intracellular Recording
        2. Extracellular Recording
        3. Iontophoresis
      5. Imaging
        1. Optical Imaging of intrinsic signals
        2. Two-photon calcium imaging
        3. Voltage sensitive dye imaging
        4. fMRI - functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
          1. BOLD Response
        5. PET - Positron Emission Tomography
        6. SPECT - Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
      6. EEG - Electroencephalogram
      7. TMS - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
      8. MEG - Magnetoencephalography
      9. Molecular Biology and Genetics Techniques
      10. Neuropharmacology
    3. Key Concepts
      1. Neurons
      2. Basic Structure of Visual Pathway
        1. Large Scale Connectivity
        2. Dorsal and Ventral Streams
        3. Modularity
      3. Cortical Circuitry
      4. Neural Coding
      5. Receptive Fields
      6. Extra-classical Receptive Fields and Surround Modulation
      7. Topographic maps
      8. Binding & Synchronization
      9. Cortical Magnification
      10. Contrilateral/Ipsilateral Function
      11. Attention
    4. Main Components
      1. Global Anatomy and region nomenclature
      2. The Eye
        1. Anatomy and Structure
        2. Function
        3. Eye Movements
          1. Saccades and Microsaccades
      3. The Retina
        1. Development
        2. Anatomy and Structure
          1. Blind Spot
          2. Fovea and Periphery
          3. Circuitry
            1. Photoreceptors
            2. Horizontal Cells
            3. Bipolar Cells
            4. Amacrine Cells
            5. Retinal Ganglion Cells
        3. Function and Computations
          1. Light and Dark Adaptation
          2. Color Coding
      4. Lateral geniculate Nucleus/LGN
        1. Development
        2. Anatomy and Structure
        3. Function and Computations
        4. Parvocellular and Magnocellular Pathways
      5. Visual Cortex
        1. Plasticity and Development
          1. Plasticity
          2. Development
        2. V1/Primary Visual Cortex/Striate Cortex/Brodmann area 17
          1. Anatomy and Structure
          2. Neuron Types
          3. Connectivity
          4. Simple, Complex, Hypercomplex Cells
          5. Neural Coding
          6. Parvocellular and Magnocellular Pathways
          7. Layers
          8. Contrast Sensitivity
          9. Selectivity and Mapping of Stimulus Features
            1. Ocular Dominance
            2. Orientation
            3. Direction
            4. Spatial Frequency
            5. Colour
            6. Binocularity and Binocular Disparity
        3. Extrastriate Cortex/Brodmann areas 18 and 19/ Visual Association Area
          1. V2
          2. V3
            1. Dorsal V3/DM/PO/V6
            2. Ventral V3/VP
          3. V4
          4. DP (Dorsal Prelunate area)
          5. V5/MT (Middle Temporal Area)
        4. Higher Visual Cortical Areas
          1. MST/V5A (Medial Superior Temporal Cortex)
          2. Intraparietal Area
            1. LIP (Lateral Intraparietal Area)
            2. VIP (Ventral Intraparietal Area)
            3. AIP (Anterior Intraparietal)
          3. Area 7a
          4. Interferotemporal Cortex
            1. PIT (Posterior Interferotemporal Cortex)/TEO
            2. CIT (Central Inferotemporal Cortex)
            3. AIT (Anterior Inferotemporal Cortex)
          5. STP(Superior Temporal Polysensory Area)
          6. Cuneus
          7. SFS (Superior Frontal Sulcus)
          8. FEF (Frontal Eye Field)
      6. Superior Colliculus
      7. Pulvinar
      8. Caudate Nucleus

  19. Visual Processing Software Environments
    1. General
    2. ARC - Automatic Reconstruction Conduit - free web-based 3D reconstruction, including camera position, from uploaded images of a scene or object
    3. BBLimage: tools for processing volume images, especially medical images
    4. Bio-medical Imaging in Java (Michael Abramoff)
    5. Camera Calibration in Matlab Toolkit (J-Y Bouguet)
    6. CamCap: Nottingham Windows-based video image processing environment
    7. Commercial Image Processing developer toolkits
    8. CVIPtools - Windows, FreeBSD, Linux and Solaris, Irix based software package for the exploration of computer vision and image processing
    9. Epipolar Geometry Toolbox - A matlab based set of functions for multiple view computer vision problems. See Technical Report (Gian Luca Mariottini, Domenico Prattichizzo)
    10. EuclidStudio - a free integration environment for the development of video processing algorithms
    11. Face detection Software (Robert W. Frischholz)
    12. Fast Random Walker with priors for image segmentation (Shawn Andrews, Ahmed Saad, Ghassan Hamarneh)
    13. Feature Selection Toolbox 3 - C++ open source library specialized particularly in the problem of feature selection
    14. Fourier - Platform-independent image processing and analysis software written in ANSI C
    15. FPimage: Commercial Image Processing Software for the PC
    16. FFTW - free C subroutine library for computing the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) in one or more dimensions
    17. FreeImage - Image library for Windows
    18. Gandalf
    19. GNU Image Manipulation Program- free software for image manipulation
    20. homest: A C/C++ Library for Robust, Non-linear Homography Estimation - homest is a C/C++ implementation of an algorithm for non-linear, robust homography estimation from matched image point features that is distributed under the GPL. It supports different cost functions for the non-linear minimization and includes robust regression techniques for coping with outliers.
    21. HIPS Image Processing Software For the Unix/`C' Environment
    22. ImageJ - public domain Java image processing program
    23. ImageMagick: tools and libraries to read, write, and manipulate images
    24. Imalab - free extensible interactive image analysis environment
    25. ImLib3D - A C++ library for 3D image processing
    26. infer.net - a framework for running Bayesian inference in graphical models.
    27. Intel's Open Source Computer Vision Library
    28. Intel's Image Processing Library
    29. ITK-SNAP: a software application used to segment structures in 3D medical images
    30. IUE: Image Understanding Environment
    31. IVT: Integrating Vision Toolkit - free, convenient access to imaging devices, clean camera abstraction, generic calibration, integration of OpenCV and QT.
    32. Khoros
    33. Live-Vessel - interactive, Live-Wire-like segmentation tool for tubular structures (e.g. vessels)
    34. LTI-Lib Computer Vision Library in C++ - open source library with many standard and advanced computer vision methods
    35. Mixed Reality Toolkit (MRT) - small library of C++ classes (Russell Freeman)
    36. Morphology Toolbox for MATLAB (Roberto Lotufo, lotufo@dca.fee.unicamp.br)
    37. Metric Vision image measurement matlab software including point-to-curve distance and matching and tutorials
    38. MOTRIS - a framework for 3d-model based tracking, developed as a successor to XTrack
    39. FastPD - a FastPD MRF Optimization Library: minimizing the energy of a discrete Markov Random Field
    40. MST Image C++ library for reading/writing images
    41. Non-rigid Shape Registration - Establishes one-to-one correspondences between 2D shape instances of an object, eg. for ASMs
    42. NVL++ - C++ thread-safe wrapper for OpenCV
    43. openCV - an open source cv system written in perl
    44. OpenMorpho - A C++ image processing library dedicated to Mathematical Morphology
    45. OpenTVF - a C++ library/framework for Tensor Voting
    46. PIANO - algorithms and tools for multi-dimensional medical image processing
    47. Poplog interactive programming environment and vision teaching materials with distribution here.
    48. Popular Software packages for vision and image processing
    49. PNG image library
    50. QVision - fast computer vision prototyping and programming, object oriented C++ environment, interoperates with libraries like OpenCV, CGAL
    51. SBA - a generic sparse bundle adjustment c/c++ package based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and LEVMAR - the Levenberg-Marquardt non-linear least squares algorithms in C/C++
    52. SaliencyToolbox 2.0 for Matlab - "a collection of Matlab functions and scripts for computing the saliency map for an image, for determining the extent of a proto-object, and for serially scanning the image with the focus of attention".
    53. Surf-GPU - NVidia CUDA platform implementation of SURF
    54. TargetJr
    55. TIFF image library
    56. TINA - an open source environment to accelerate the process of image analysis research.
    57. VideoOCX - an Active-X development tool for image capture and display
    58. VIGRA - Generic C++ Programming for Computer Vision
    59. VripPack - Volumetric Range Image Processing Package
    60. VXL - C++ Libraries for Computer Vision Research and Implementation, based on TargetJr and the Image Understanding Environment (IUE) to make it lighter, faster and more consistent.
    61. Image Processing with XBit - (Chengye Mao)
    62. XMegaWave - a free image processing environment (Agustin Trujillo, agustin@dis.ulpgc.es)
    63. XVision/XVision2 - application independent set of tools for visual feature tracking
    64. XVideoOCX - a commercial ActiveX control that allows integration of video capture and image processing capabilities into software applications.
    65. Yayi:an open-source mathematical morphology and image processing "generic" framework, written in C++ with a Python interface (under the permissive Boost licence).
  20. Visual Processing Control Structures
    1. General
    2. Architectures for Visual Processing
      1. Inter-process Visual Data Interfacing
    3. Attention, Foveation and Saccading
      1. Focus of Attention
      2. Gaze Control
      3. Visual Salience
    4. Behavior-Based Control
    5. Blackboards
    6. Classes of Vision Systems
      1. Continuous Process Systems
      2. Real Time/Video Rate Systems
      3. Single Image Processes
    7. "Expert-System" Control, Knowledge-Based Systems
    8. Heterarchical/Mixed Control
    9. Hierarchical Control
      1. Bottom-Up/Data Driven
      2. Top-Down/Model-Based
    10. Islands of Certainty
    11. Parallel Processing
    12. Sequential/Serial Processing
    13. Visual Search
  21. Visual Psychophysics

    Visionary: A useful glossary of psychological and neurophysiological vision terms.
    Visual Psychophysics/Psychology
    Wikipedia: Psychophysics
    Wikipedia: Visual Perception

    1. Attention
    2. Constancies
      1. Colour
      2. Lightness
      3. Shape
      4. Size
    3. Disorders/Disfunction
      1. Aniseikonia
      2. Achromatopsia
      3. Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome
      4. Blindness
        1. Acquired Vision
        2. Blindsight
        3. Change Blindness
        4. Color blindness
        5. Repetition Blindness
      5. Visual Agnosias
        1. Apperceptive Agnosia
        2. Associative Agnosia
        3. Color Agnosia
        4. Mirror Agnosia
        5. Prosopagnosia
    4. Experimental Design
      1. Detection Theory
      2. Fourier Analysis
      3. Inter-Stimulus Interval
      4. Psychometric Function
      5. Spatial Frequency
      6. Statistics
      7. Stevens Power Law
      8. Temporal Frequency
      9. Weber-Fechner Law
    5. Experimental Stimuli
      1. Autostereograms
      2. Gratings
      3. Optical Illusions
        1. After Effect Illusions
        2. Ambiguous Pictures
        3. Illusory Contours
      4. Random Dot Kinematogram
      5. Rapid Serial Visual Presentation
      6. Visual Contours
      7. Visual Phantoms
    6. Eye movement
      1. Saccades & Microsaccades
      2. Vestibular-Ocular Reflex (VOR) and Pursuit Movement
    7. General Concepts
      1. Adaptation
      2. After Effects
      3. Contrast Sensitivity
      4. Saccadic Suppression
      5. Temporal Resolution
        1. Change Blindness
        2. Flicker Fusion
      6. Visual Acuity
    8. Perception
      1. Color Perception
        1. Color Vision
        2. Scotopic Vision
        3. Unique Hues
      2. Depth Perception
        1. Accommodation
        2. Binocularity
        3. Color and depth
        4. Convergence
        5. Correspondence Constraints
        6. Distance fog
        7. Horopter
        8. Occlusion
        9. Parallax
        10. Peripheral Vision
        11. Retinal Disparity/Stereopsis
      3. Face Perception
      4. Motion Perception
        1. Optical Flow
        2. Structure from Motion
        3. Time to Contact
        4. Vection
      5. Multimodal Perception
        1. Synesthesia
      6. Object Perception
        1. Object Recognition
        2. Shape and Texture
      7. Space Perception
      8. Texture Perception
    9. Perceptual Organization
      1. Figure-Ground Discrimination
      2. Gestalt Laws of Grouping
    10. Psychophysical Methods
      1. Discrimination
      2. Forced Choice Methods
      3. Just Noticeable Difference
      4. Method of Adjustment
      5. Method of Constant Stimuli
      6. Method of Limits
      7. Staircase Procedure
      8. Thresholds
    11. Theoretical perspectives
      1. Affordances
      2. Gestalt Theory
      3. Gibson's Theory
      4. Marr's Raw/Full Primal Sketch
      5. Unconscious Inference
    12. Visual Search
    13. Visual Short Term Memory

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