Scale - change image content size

Rotate - change image content orientation

Reflect - flip over image contents

Translate - change image content position

Affine Transformation - general image content linear geometric transformation

A geometric operation maps pixel information (*i.e.* the intensity values
at each pixel location ) in an input image to
another location in an output image. For
basic operators described in this package, these functions are first order
polynomials which take the form:

Translation can be accomplished by specifying values
for the *B* matrix, while scaling,
rotation and reflection are defined by
instantiating variables in the *A* matrix. A general
affine transformation (which uses both matrices) can be
used to perform a combination of these operations at once, and is
often used in applications, *e.g.* remote sensing, where we wish to
correct for geometric distortions in the image introduced by
perspective irregularities. Geometric operators are also used to
improve the visualization of the image, *e.g.* zooming an interesting
region of the image, or as a part of an image processing chain where,
*e.g.* translation is required in order to register two images.