Diathesis Alternations

Along the lines of lexical-functional grammar, where active/passive alternatives are not a matter of transformation but a functional relation between two verbs, and where this relation is defined in terms of lexical rules, in the XMG grammar active/passive alternatives are considered different realisations of the same predicate-argument structure. The distinct argument realisations are captured by means of disjunction.

This level of abstraction is concerned with the distribution of semantic arguments among syntactic functions and, more specifically, the possible realisations of a predicate-argument structure. In the previous level we outlined the diathesis alternations that are specific to each tree family. Now we shall see what tree descriptions are encapsulated in an active/passive/agentless passive diathesis. Passive constructions are treated as a syntactic alternative of the declarative subcategorisation frame and they are accompanied by differently marked morphological form. Within this analysis, passive trees are restricted by their <mode=ppart > value, which permits only auxiliary trees with <rmode=ppart > and <passive= + > to adjoin. In the proposed framework, the active and passive structures are formally defined as a conjunction of argument realisations and a verbal skeleton.

We defined the diathesis alternations within each family.

n0V

Intransitive verbs do not undergo any passivisation. Their active diathesis (dian0Vactive) was defined as a conjunction of an active verb and a subject. Moreover, intransitive verbs can be used as participial modifiers and in this case the main verb appears in gerund mode (i.e. as an -ing adjective). This realisation was formalised as an alternative of the active diathesis.

<Dian0V>=
class  dian0Vactive
{
        {active[] ; Subject[]} 
        |  betaVn[]*=[vmode = ger]  
        
}

Defines dian0Vactive (links are to index).

En1V

The syntactic configurations of ergative verbs (diaEn1Vactive) resemble the surface realisations of the intransitive family -- the active diathesis was formalised as a conjunction of an active verb and a subject. Ergative verbs can be used as participial modifiers as well.

<DiaEn1V>=
class  diaEn1Vactive
{
        {active[] ; Subject[]} 
        |  betaVn[]*=[vmode = ger]  
}

Defines diaEn1Vactive (links are to index).

n0Vn1

General property of transitive verbs is their passivisation. Therefore, these verbs have a full paradigm for active, passive and agentless passive. Their active diathesis (dian0Vn1active) was formalised as conjunction of an active verb skeleton, subject and object. Additionally, transitive verbs can be used as attributive past participial modifiers (i.e, -ed adjectives), where the mode of the main verb is past participle. The -ed adjectives can be used predicatively in which case the modified object appears before the adjective (e.g., Bill seems really defeated.) The modifiers are defined as alternatives of the active forms. Passivisation consists in moving the object into the subject position and in using the logical agent as a by-object. Passive diathesis (dian0Vn1passive) was formalised as conjunction of a passive verb form, subject and a by-object. The definition of the agentless passive (dian0Vn1shortpassive) lacks the realisation of the by-object.

<Dian0Vn1>=
class  dian0Vn1active
{
        {active[] ; Subject[] ; Object[]}
        | betaVn[]*=[vmode = ppart] 
        | alphaAV[]
}

class  dian0Vn1passive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0Vn1shortpassive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] 
}       


Defines dian0Vn1active, dian0Vn1passive, dian0Vn1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0Vn2n1

The ditransitive family has a full paradigm for active, passive and agentless passive. The active diathesis (dian0Vn2n1active) was formally defined as a conjunction of an active verb form, subject, indirect object and direct object. There are not attested any attributively and predicatively used verb forms. In the passive diathesis (dian0Vn2n1passive) the indirect object (the beneficient) is used in the subject position and the logical agent appears as a an object of the by-preposition. This allows for sentences like Lisa was given a book. The passive was defined as conjunction of a passive verb, subject, object and by-agent. The definition of agentless passive (dian0Vn2n1shortpassive) was formalised as a conjunction of a passive verb form, a subject and an object.

<Dian0Vn2n1>=
class  dian0Vn2n1active 
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; IObject[] ; Object[] 
}

class  dian0Vn2n1passive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; Object[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0Vn2n1shortpassive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; Object[]
}

Defines dian0Vn2n1active, dian0Vn2n1passive, dian0Vn2n1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0Vn1pn2

The ditransitive with PP family has a full paradigm for active, passive and agentless diathesis. The active diathesis (dian0Vn1pn2active) was defined as conjunction of an active verb form, subject, object and indirect object with PP marked for substitution. In passive the object is surface realised as a subject and the logical subject is used as an object of a by-phrase. The formal definition of the passive diathesis (dian0Vn1pn2passive) was formalised a conjunction of the passive skeleton, a subject, prepositional object with a Prep substitution node and a by-agent. The definition of the agentless passive (dian0Vn1pn2shortpassive) does not have a form for the logical subject.

<Dian0Vn1pn2>=
class  dian0Vn1pn2active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; Object[] ; PPIObjectSubst[] 
}

class  dian0Vn1pn2passive
{       
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; PPIObjectSubst[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0Vn1pn2shortpassive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; PPIObjectSubst[]
}

Defines dian0Vn1pn2active, dian0Vn1pn2passive, dian0Vn1pn2shortpassive (links are to index).

n0Vn1Pn2

The diathesis of this tree family is defined in parallel to n0Vn1pn2. The active diathesis (dian0Vn1Pn2active) is a conjunction of an active verb skeleton, a subject, an object, and a prepositional phrase with a Prep coanchor. In passive (dian0Vn1Pn2passive), the object is realised as a syntactic subject and the subject as an object of by-phrase. Agentless passive (dian0Vn1Pn2shortpassive) does not have a form for the agent.

<Dian0Vn1Pn2>=
class  dian0Vn1Pn2active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; Object[] ; PPIObjectAnchor[]
}

class  dian0Vn1Pn2passive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; PPIObjectAnchor[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0Vn1Pn2shortpassive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; PPIObjectAnchor[]
}

Defines dian0Vn1Pn2active, dian0Vn1Pn2passive, dian0Vn1Pn2shortpassive (links are to index).

n0Vn1s2

Transitive verbs with a sentential complement undergo passivisation. The definition of their active diathesis (dian0Vn1s2active) resembles the one of pure transitive verbs: a conjunction of an active verb, a subject, an object plus a sentential complement. In passive (dian0Vn1s2passive), the object becomes a syntactic subject and the subject is realised as an object of a by-phrase. The agent is not available in agentless passive (dian0Vn1s2shortpassive).

<Dian0Vn1s2>=
class  dian0Vn1s2active
{     
      active[] ;  Subject[] ; Object[] ; SentComplement[]
}

class  dian0Vn1s2passive
{     
      passive[] ; Subject[] ; SentComplement[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0Vn1s2shortpassive
{
      passive[] ; Subject[] ; SentComplement[]
}

Defines dian0Vn1s2active, dian0Vn1s2passive, dian0Vn1s2shortpassive (links are to index).

n0Vpl

The family of intransitive verbs with particle was defined in terms of its active diathesis (dian0Vplactive) as a conjunction of a subject, active verb and a particle.

<Dian0Vpl>=
class  dian0Vplactive
{
        active[] ; particle[] ; Subject[]
}

Defines dian0Vplactive (links are to index).

n0Vpln1

The transitive with particle family has a full paradigm for active, passive and agentless passive. The formal definition of the active diathesis (dian0Vpln1active) was formalised as a conjunction of an active verb, particle, subject and object. In passive (dian0Vpln1passive), the object is realised as a subject and the subject as an object of a by-phrase. The rest of the conjuncts remain as in active. The definition of the agentless passive (dian0Vpln1shortpassive) does not include a realised agent.

<Dian0Vpln1>=
class  dian0Vpln1active
{
        active[] ; particle[] ; Subject[] ; Object[]
}

class  dian0Vpln1passive
{
        passive[] ; particle[] ; Subject[] ; ByAgent[] 
}

class  dian0Vpln1shortpassive
{
        passive[] ; particle[] ; Subject[]
}

Defines dian0Vpln1active, dian0Vpln1passive, dian0Vpln1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0Vpln2n1

The intransitive with particle family does not undergo passive transformation. Its active diathesis (dian0Vpln2n1active) was formalised as a conjunction of an active verb form, particle, subject, direct and indirect (beneficient) object.

<Dian0Vpln2n1>=
class  dian0Vpln2n1active
{
        active[] ; particle[] ; Subject[] ; Object[] ; IObject[]        
}

Defines dian0Vpln2n1active (links are to index).

n0Vpn1

The intransitive with PP family has forms for active, passive and agentless passive. The definition of the active diathesis (dian0Vpn1active) was formalised as a conjunction of an active verb form, subject and a prepositional phrase with Prep substitution node. In passive (dian0Vpn1passive), the object of the preposition is realised as a subject and the subject as an object of a by-phrase. The passive was formally defined as a conjunction of a passive verb form, subject, exhaustive PP with Prep substitution node and a by-agent. In short passive (dian0Vpn1shortpassive), the logical subject is not present.

<Dian0Vpn1>=
class  dian0Vpn1active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; PPIObjectSubst[]
}

class  dian0Vpn1passive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; CanPPSubstExhaustive[] ; ByAgent[]
}


class  dian0Vpn1shortpassive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; CanPPSubstExhaustive[]
}

Defines dian0Vpn1active, dian0Vpn1passive, dian0Vpn1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VPn1

The diathesis alternations in n0VPn1 were defined in parallel to the ones in n0Vpn1 family: the active diathesis (dian0VPn1active) was formalised as a conjunction of an active verb, subject and a prepositional phrase with a Prep coanchor. In passive (dian0VPn1passive), the PP object is realised in the position of the subject and thus, the passive diathesis was defined as a conjunction of a passive verb form, subject, exhaustive PP with Prep coanchor and by-agent. The latter syntactic function is not present in the definition of agentless passive (dian0VPn1shortpassive).

<Dian0VPn1>=
class  dian0VPn1active
{
       active[] ; Subject[] ; PPIObjectAnchor[]
}

class  dian0VPn1passive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; CanPPCoanchorExhaustive[] ;  ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0VPn1shortpassive
{
        passive[] ; Subject[] ; CanPPCoanchorExhaustive[]
}

Defines dian0VPn1active, dian0VPn1passive, dian0VPn1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0Vs1

This family does not undergo any passivisation. It was thus, defined in terms of its active diathesis (dian0Vs1active) as a conjunction of an active verb, subject and a sentential complement.

<Dian0Vs1>=
class  dian0Vs1active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; SentComplement[]
}

Defines dian0Vs1active (links are to index).

n0Va1

This verb family does not undergo any passivisation. It was defined in terms of its active diathesis (dian0Va1active) as a conjunction of an active verb, a subject and an adjective complement.

<Dian0Va1>=

class  dian0Va1active
{
       active[] ; Subject[] ; AdjComplement[]
}

Defines dian0Va1active (links are to index).

s0Vn1

This family was defined by its active diathesis (dias0Vn1active) as a conjunction of an active verb form, sentential subject and canonical object. It should be veriefied whether other realisations of the object are permissible.

<Dias0Vn1>=
class  dias0Vn1active
{
        SententialSubject[] ; CanObject[] ; active[]
}

Defines dias0Vn1active (links are to index).

n0lVN1

The light verb family does not have any passive alternations. The definition of its active diathesis (dian0lVN1active) resembles the definition of the transitive family: conjunction of an active verb, subject and an object. Here, however, we include an object where the N node is marked as a coanchor node.

<Dian0lVN1>=
class  dian0lVN1active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; ObjectNCoanchor[] 
}

Defines dian0lVN1active (links are to index).

n0lVn2N1

The diathesis alternations in the light verb family with an indirect object are defined separately in the the case where the dative is shifted and in the case where there is no dative shift.

Firstly, the active diathesis without dative shift (dian0lVn2N1active) was defined as a conjunction of an active verb form, subject, indirect object and an object with N coanchor. The passive diathesis (dian0lVn2N1passive) does not have a complete paradigm: the realisation of the subject is more restricted and therefore, it was defined as a disjunction of its possible configurations (canonical subject, PRO-subject and a subject of gerund verb form). The formal definition of the passive diathesis was formalised as a conjunction of a passive verb form, disjunction of subject realisations, object with N coanchor and a canonical by-agent. The agentless passive is attested only with a gerund verb form. Therefore, its formal definition (dian0lVn2N1NPgerundshortpassive) included a passive form, object with N coanchor and a subject with gerund.

Secondly, the active diathesis with dative shift (dian0lVN1Pn2active) was formalised as a conjunction of an active verb form, subject, object with N coanchor and an object headed by a to-preposition. The passive realisation is again more restricted: the shifted object and the by-agent appear in their canonical forms. Thus, we formally defined the passive alternation as a conjunction of a passive verb form, subject coanchored by N, canonical to-object and canonical by-agent. The agentless passive (dian0lVN1Pn2NPgerundshortpassive) is realised only in gerund and hence, we defined it as conjunction of a passive form, subject of a gerund coanchored by N and a canonical to-object.

<Dian0lVN1Pn2>=
class  dian0lVn2N1active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; IObject[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]
}

class  dian0lVn2N1passive
{
        passive[] ; {CanSubject[] | ProSubject[] | NPGerundSubject[]} ; ObjectNCoanchor[] ; CanByAgent[]
}

class  dian0lVn2N1NPgerundshortpassive
{
        passive[] ; NPGerundSubject[] ; ObjectNCoanchor[]
}

class  dian0lVN1Pn2active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; ObjectNCoanchor[] ; ToObject[]
}

class  dian0lVN1Pn2passive
{
        passive[] ; SubjectNCoanchor[] ; CanToObject[] ; CanByAgent[]
}

class  dian0lVN1Pn2NPgerundshortpassive
{
        passive[] ; SubjectNCoanchorNPGerund[] ; CanToObject[]
}

Defines dian0lVN1Pn2active, dian0lVN1Pn2NPgerundshortpassive, dian0lVN1Pn2passive, dian0lVn2N1active, dian0lVn2N1NPgerundshortpassive, dian0lVn2N1passive (links are to index).

ItVn1s2

The cleft family with noun clefted argument was defined as a conjunction of a clefted nominal argument and a disjunction of a non-inverted active verb and inverted verb (diaItVn1s2).

<DiaItVn1s2>=
class  diaItVn1s2
{
        {active[] |  VerbalInverted[]}; NominalCleft[] 
}

Defines diaItVn1s2 (links are to index).

ItVpn1s2

The diathesis definition in the cleft family with PP clefted element was defined in parallel to ItVn1s2: a conjunction of a clefted PP and a disjunction of a non-inverted active verb and inverted verb ( diaItVpn1s2).

<DiaItVpn1s2>=
class  diaItVpn1s2
{
        {active[] | VerbalInverted[]} ; PPCleft[]
}

Defines diaItVpn1s2 (links are to index).

ItVad1s2

The diathesis definition in the cleft family with adverbial clefted element was considered in parallel to ItVn1s2 and ItVpn1s2: a conjunction of a cleft adverb and a disjunction of a non-inverted active verb and inverted verb (diaItVad1s2).

<DiaItVad1s2>=
class  diaItVad1s2
{
        {active[] | VerbalInverted[]} ; AdverbCleft[]
}

Defines diaItVad1s2 (links are to index).

n0A1

Verb families, which are not anchored by a verb form, do not have any diathesis alternations. Instead of being an anchor node, the verb is an empty category. The definition of this tree family (Dian0A1) is thus a conjunction of a subject, an emtpy verb (verbless) and an adjective anchor.

<Dian0A1>=
class  Dian0A1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ; AdjComplementAnchor[] 
} 

Defines Dian0A1 (links are to index).

n0A1s1

This verb family is anchored by an adjective. It was defined as a conjunction (Dian0A1s1) of n0A1 family plus sentential complement with S substitution node.

<Dian0A1s1>=
class  Dian0A1s1
{
        Dian0A1[] ; CanSentComplement2[]
}

Defines Dian0A1s1 (links are to index).

s0A1

This verb family, anchored by an adjective was defined as a conjunction (Dias0A1) of a sentential subject, empty verb category and a canonical adjective with Adj anchor. There is no wh-movement of the anchor node.

<Dias0A1>=
class  Dias0A1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ; CanAdjAnchor[]
}

Defines Dias0A1 (links are to index).

n0BEn1

This verb family has an active diathesis (Dian0BEn1) defined as a conjunction of a canonical subject, disjunction of inverted and non-inverted verbs and a canonical complement.

<Dian0BEn1>=
class  Dian0BEn1
{
        CanSubject[] ; {active[] | VerbalInverted[]} ; CanBEComplement[]
}

Defines Dian0BEn1 (links are to index).

n0N1

This verb family is anchored by a noun. It was therefore defined as a conjunction (Dian0N1) of a subject, empty verbal category and an object with an N anchor.

<Dian0N1>=
class  Dian0N1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ; ObjectAnchor[]
}

Defines Dian0N1 (links are to index).

n0N1s1

This tree family is anchored by a noun and it subcategorises for a sentential complement. Therefore, its definition (Dian0N1s1) is a conjunction of Dian0N1 and a sentential complement with S substitution node.

<Dian0N1s1>=
class  Dian0N1s1
{
        Dian0N1[] ; CanSentComplement2[]
}

Defines Dian0N1s1 (links are to index).

s0N1

This family is anchored by a noun and it selects a sentential subject. It was formally defined (Dias0N1) as a conjunction of a sentential subject, empty verbal category and an object with N anchor node.

<Dias0N1>=
class  Dias0N1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ; ObjectAnchor[]
}

Defines Dias0N1 (links are to index).

n0Pn1

This family is anchored by a preposition and therefore, its definition (Dian0Pn1) contains a PP with Prep anchor, a subject and an empty verbal category.

<Dian0Pn1>=
class  Dian0Pn1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ; PPAnchorArgumentNP[]
}

Defines Dian0Pn1 (links are to index).

n0P1

This family is anchored by an exhautive PP. It was defined (Dian0P1) as a conjunction of a subject, emtpy verbal category and an exhaustive PP with a Prep anchor.

<Dian0P1>=
class  Dian0P1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ; PPAnchorExhaustive[]
}

Defines Dian0P1 (links are to index).

s0Pn1

This family is anchored by a preposition and it should cooccur with a sentential subject. Thus, it was defined (Dias0Pn1) and as a conjunction of a sentential subject, empty verbal category and a PP with Prep anchor.

<Dias0Pn1>=
class  Dias0Pn1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ; PPAnchorArgumentNP[]
}

Defines Dias0Pn1 (links are to index).

s0V

The intransitive with sentential subject family does not undergo passivisation. Its active diathesis (dias0Vactive) was therefore defined as a conjunction of an active verb form and a sentential subject.

<Dias0V>=
class  dias0Vactive
{
        SententialSubject[] ; active[]
}

Defines dias0Vactive (links are to index).

s0Vton1

This verb family has an active diathesis (dias0Vton1active) defined as a conjunction of a sentential subject, active verb form with V anchor and an object headed by the to-preposition. There is no wh-movement of the to-object.

<Dias0Vton1>=
class  dias0Vton1active
{
        SententialSubject[] ; active[] ; CanToObject[]
}

Defines dias0Vton1active (links are to index).

n0ARBPn1

This tree family is anchored by a multi-word preposition of two lexical items: an adverb and a preposition. It was defined as a conjunction of a subject argument, an empty verb and a PP with Adv and Prep anchors (Dian0ARBPn1).

<Dian0ARBPn1>=
class  Dian0ARBPn1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentAdv[]
}

Defines Dian0ARBPn1 (links are to index).

n0APn1

This tree family is multiply anchored by a complex preposition of two lexical items: a preposition and an adjective. The family was defined (Dian0APn1) as a conjunction of a subject argument, an empty verb and a PP with Prep and Adj anchors.

<Dian0APn1>=
class  Dian0APn1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentAdj[]
}

Defines Dian0APn1 (links are to index).

n0NPn1

This small clause family is multiply anchored by a complex preposition of two lexical items: a preposition and a noun. The family was defined (Dian0NPn) as a conjunction of a subject argument, an empty verb and a PP with N and Prep anchors.

<Dian0NPn1>=
class  Dian0NPn1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentN[]
}

Defines Dian0NPn1 (links are to index).

n0PPn1

This small clause family is multiply anchored by a complex preposition of two prepositional items. The family was defined (Dian0PPn1) as a conjunction of a subject argument, an empty verb and a PP with two Prep anchors.

<Dian0PPn1>=
class  Dian0PPn1
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentP[]  
}

Defines Dian0PPn1 (links are to index).

n0PNaPn1

This tree family is multiply anchored by a complex preposition of 3 lexical items: a preposition, followed by a noun, which is followed by a preposition. The family was defined (Dian0PNaPn1) as a conjunction of a subject argument, an empty verb and a PP with Prep, N and Prep anchors.

<Dian0PNaPn1>=
class  Dian0PNaPn1
{ 
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ; PPAnchorArgumentPNP[]
}

Defines Dian0PNaPn1 (links are to index).

s0ARBPn1

This small clause family can be considered in parallel to n0ARBPn1: it is anchored by a multi-word preposition of an adverb and a preposition. s0ARBPn1, however, subcategorises for a sentential subject. It was therefore defined (Dias0ARBPn1) as a conjunction of a sentential subject, an empty verb and a PP with Adv and Prep anchors.

<Dias0ARBPn1>=
class  Dias0ARBPn1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentAdv[]  
}

Defines Dias0ARBPn1 (links are to index).

s0APn1

This small clause family can be viewed in parallel to n0APn1: it is anchored by a multi-word preposition of an adjective and a preposition. s0APn1, however, subcategorises for a sentential subject. It was therefore defined (Dias0APn1) as a conjunction of a sentential subject, an empty verb and a PP with Adj and Prep anchors.

<Dias0APn1>=
class  Dias0APn1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentAdj[]
}

Defines Dias0APn1 (links are to index).

s0NPn1

This small clause family can be viewed in parallel to s0NPn1: it is anchored by a multi-word preposition of a noun and a preposition. s0NPn1, however, subcategorises for a sentential subject and thus, it was defined (Dias0NPn1) as a conjunction of a sentential subject, an empty verb and a PP with N and Prep anchors.

<Dias0NPn1>=
class  Dias0NPn1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentN[]
}

Defines Dias0NPn1 (links are to index).

s0PPn1

This small clause family can be considered in parallel to n0PPn1: it is anchored by a multi-word preposition of a noun and a preposition. s0PPn1, however, subcategorises for a sentential subject and thus, it was defined (Dias0PPn1) as a conjunction of a sentential subject, an empty verb and a PP with two Prep anchors.

<Dias0PPn1>=
class  Dias0PPn1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ;  PPAnchorArgumentP[]
}

Defines Dias0PPn1 (links are to index).

s0PNaPn1

This small clause family can be considered in parallel to n0PNaPn1: it is anchored by a multi-word preposition of a noun and two prepositional items. s0PNaPn1, however, subcategorises for a sentential subject and thus, it was defined Dias0PNaPn1 as a conjunction of a sentential subject, an empty verb and a PP with N and two Prep anchors.

<Dias0PNaPn1>=
class  Dias0PNaPn1
{
        SententialSubject[] ; verbless[] ; PPAnchorArgumentPNP[]
}

Defines Dias0PNaPn1 (links are to index).

s0Vs1

This verb family, subcategorising for a sentential subject and a sentential complement, has only an active diathesis (dias0Vs1active). It was defined as a conjunction of a sentential subject, an active verb and a sentential complement where the S node is a foot node to allow for long-distance dependencies.

<Dias0Vs1>=
class  dias0Vs1active
{
        SententialSubject[] ; active[] ; CanSentComplementFoot[]
}

Defines dias0Vs1active (links are to index).

n0n1ARB

This small clause family is anchored by an adverb. The locative small clause family was defined (Dian0n1ARB) as a conjunction of a subject argument, empty verb and a locative with Adv anchor.

<Dian0n1ARB>=
class  Dian0n1ARB
{
        Subject[] ; verbless[] ; Locative[]
}

Defines Dian0n1ARB (links are to index).

Xn0Vs1

This ECM family does not have passive diathesis. Its active diathesis (diaXn0Vs1active) was defined as a conjunction of an active verb form assigning accusative case to the subject of the sentential complement, a subject and a sentential complement with S foot node.

<DiaXn0Vs1>=
class  diaXn0Vs1active
{
        active[] ; Subject[] ; SentComplementECM[]
}

Defines diaXn0Vs1active (links are to index).

n0VDN1

Structurally, the family of idioms resembles the subcategorisation frame of n0Vn1: they both require a subject argument and an object argument. The idiomatic trees, however, have a more limited number of syntactic transformations. n0VDN1 has forms for active, passive and agentless diathesis. The active diathesis (dian0VDN1active) was defined as a conjunction of a subject, active verb form, and a complement of two coanchors: a determiner and an object in their canonical configurations. In passive, the object argument becomes a subject: hence, the definition of the passive configuration (dian0VDN1passive) is a conjunction of a subject argument of two coanchors: a determiner and a subject in their canonical configurations, a passive verb form and a by-agent which can appear in all possible configurations. The agentless passive (dian0VDN1shortpassive) does not have a realisation of the agent.

<Dian0VDN1>=
class  dian0VDN1active
{
        Subject[] ; active[] ; DetCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]
}

class  dian0VDN1passive
{
        SubjectDetCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; passive[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0VDN1shortpassive
{
        SubjectDetCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; passive[]  
}

Defines dian0VDN1active, dian0VDN1passive, dian0VDN1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VDAN1

This family of idioms undergoes the same alternations as n0VDN1: active, passive and agentless diathesis with canonical realisations of the phrases with coanchor nodes. We added to the definition of n0VDN1 one conjunct more: that of the Adj coanchor. Thus, the active diathesis (dian0VDAN1active) was defined as a conjunction of a subject, active verb form, and a complement of three coanchors: a determiner, an adjective and an object in their canonical configurations. In passive dian0VDAN1passive, the object argument becomes a subject: hence, the definition of the passive configuration is a conjunction of a subject argument of three coanchors: a determiner, an adjective and a subject in their canonical configurations, a passive verb form and a by-agent. The agentless passive (dian0VDAN1shortpassive) does not have a realisation of the agent.

<Dian0VDAN1>=
class  dian0VDAN1active
{
        Subject[] ; active[] ; DetCoanchorCan[] ; AdjCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]
}

class  dian0VDAN1passive
{
        SubjectDetCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectAdjCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; passive[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0VDAN1shortpassive
{
        SubjectDetCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectAdjCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; passive[]  
}

Defines dian0VDAN1active, dian0VDAN1passive, dian0VDAN1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VN1

This family of idioms is anchored by a verb-noun pair. It undergoes active, passive and agentless passive diathesis where the N coanchor appears in its canonical realisation. The active diathesis (dian0VN1active) was defined as a conjunction of a subject, active verb form, and a canonical object with N coanchor. In passive, the object argument becomes a subject: hence, the definition of the passive configuration (dian0VN1passive) is a conjunction of a subject argument with N coanchor, a passive verb form and a by-agent in its possible configurations. The agentless passive dian0VN1shortpassive does not have a realisation of an agent.

<Dian0VN1>=
class  dian0VN1active
{
        Subject[] ; active[] ;  ObjectNCoanchorCan[] 
}

class  dian0VN1passive
{
        SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; passive[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0VN1shortpassive
{
        SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; passive[]
}

Defines dian0VN1active, dian0VN1passive, dian0VN1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VAN1

This verb family of idioms is anchored by a verb and coanchored by an adjective and a noun. It undergoes active, passive and agentless passive diathesis where Adj and N coanchors are in their canonical realisation. The active diathesis (dian0VAN1active) was defined as a conjunction of a subject, active verb form, and a canonical complement of two lexical items: an Adj and N coanchors. In passive, the object argument becomes a subject: hence, the definition of the passive configuration (dian0VAN1passive) is a conjunction of a subject argument with Adj and N coanchors, a passive verb form and a by-agent in its possible configurations. The agentless passive (dian0VAN1shortpassive) does not have a realisation an agent.

<Dian0VAN1>=
class  dian0VAN1active
{
        Subject[] ; active[] ; AdjCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]
}

class  dian0VAN1passive
{
        SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectAdjCoanchorCan[] ; passive[] ; ByAgent[]
}

class  dian0VAN1shortpassive
{
        SubjectNCoanchorCan[] ; SubjectAdjCoanchorCan[] ; passive[] 
}

Defines dian0VAN1active, dian0VAN1passive, dian0VAN1shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VDAN1Pn2

This family of idioms can be considered in parallel to n0VDAN1: it undergoes active, passive and agentless diathesis. Moreover, it subcategorises for a PP in its canonical configuration. Thus, the active/passive/agentless passive were defined as a conjunction of n0VDAN1 active/passive/agentless passive and a canonical PP argument (dian0VDAN1Pn2active dian0VDAN1Pn2passive dian0VDAN1Pn2shortpassive). This verb family undergoes two additional diathesis: outer passive with by-agent and outer passive without by-agent. In these cases, the object of the PP was extracted out of its canonical position to the front of the clause in the subject position. This generates sentences like His temporary drug problem was made a great deal of (by the press). Thus, the formal definition of the outer passive (dian0VDAN1Pn2outerpassive) is a conjunction of a subject, passive verb form, a complement of Det, Adj and N coanchors and a by-agent. The last function is not present in the agentless outer passive (dian0VDAN1Pn2outershortpassive).

<Dian0VDAN1Pn2>=
class  dian0VDAN1Pn2active
{      
       dian0VDAN1active[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VDAN1Pn2passive
{      
       dian0VDAN1passive[] ; CanPPIObject[] 
}

class  dian0VDAN1Pn2shortpassive
{      
       dian0VDAN1shortpassive[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VDAN1Pn2outerpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ; DetCoanchorCan[] ; AdjCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[] ; ByAgent[]             
}

class  dian0VDAN1Pn2outershortpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ;  DetCoanchorCan[] ; AdjCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]        
}

Defines dian0VDAN1Pn2active, dian0VDAN1Pn2outerpassive, dian0VDAN1Pn2outershortpassive, dian0VDAN1Pn2passive, dian0VDAN1Pn2shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VAN1Pn2

This family of idioms can be viewed in parallel to n0VAN1: it undergoes active, passive and agentless diathesis. Moreover, it selects a PP in its canonical configuration. Thus, the active/passive/agentless passive diathesis (dian0VAN1Pn2active dian0VAN1Pn2passive dian0VAN1Pn2shortpassive) were defined as a conjunction of an active/passive/agentless n0VAN1 diathesis and a canonical PP argument. This verb family undergoes two additional diathesis: outer passive with by-agent and outer passive without by-agent. In these cases, the object of the PP was extracted out of its canonical position to the front of the clause in the subject position. This allows for sentences like The blueberry cake was made short work of (by Elizabeth). Thus, the formal definition of the outer passive (dian0VAN1Pn2outerpassive) is a conjunction of a subject, passive verb form, a complement of Adj and N coanchors and a by-agent The agent is not present in the diathesis of agentless outer passive (dian0VAN1Pn2outershortpassive).

<Dian0VAN1Pn2>=
class  dian0VAN1Pn2active
{      
       dian0VAN1active[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VAN1Pn2passive
{      
       dian0VAN1passive[] ; CanPPIObject[] 
}

class  dian0VAN1Pn2shortpassive
{      
       dian0VAN1shortpassive[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VAN1Pn2outerpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ; AdjCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]; ByAgent[]                 
}

class  dian0VAN1Pn2outershortpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ; AdjCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]    
}

Defines dian0VAN1Pn2active, dian0VAN1Pn2outerpassive, dian0VAN1Pn2outershortpassive, dian0VAN1Pn2passive, dian0VAN1Pn2shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VN1Pn2

This family of idioms can be considered in parallel to n0VN1: it undergoes active, passive and agentless diathesis. It also requires a PP in its canonical configuration. Thus, the active/passive/agentless passive diathesis were defined as a conjunction of the corresponding n0VN1 diathesis and a canonical PP argument (dian0VN1Pn2active dian0VN1Pn2passive dian0VN1Pn2shortpassive). This verb family undergoes two additional diathesis: outer passive with by-agent and outer passive without by-agent. In these cases, the object of the PP was extracted out of its canonical position to the front of the clause and was realised as a subject. This allows for sentences like His records were kept track of (by the journalists). Thus, the formal definition of outer passive (dian0VN1Pn2outerpassive) is a conjunction of a subject, passive verb form, a canonical complement of N coanchor and a by-agent. The agent is not present in the diathesis of the agentless outer passive (dian0VN1Pn2outershortpassive).

<Dian0VN1Pn2>=
class  dian0VN1Pn2active
{      
       dian0VN1active[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VN1Pn2passive
{      
       dian0VN1passive[] ; CanPPIObject[] 
}

class  dian0VN1Pn2shortpassive
{      
       dian0VN1shortpassive[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VN1Pn2outerpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]; ByAgent[]            
}

class  dian0VN1Pn2outershortpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]       
}

Defines dian0VN1Pn2active, dian0VN1Pn2outerpassive, dian0VN1Pn2outershortpassive, dian0VN1Pn2passive, dian0VN1Pn2shortpassive (links are to index).

n0VDN1Pn2

This family of idioms can be considered in parallel to n0VDN1: it undergoes active, passive and agentless diathesis. It also requires a PP in its canonical configuration. Thus, the active/passive/agentless passive diathesis were defined as a conjunction of the corresponding n0VDN1 diathesis and a canonical PP argument. This verb family undergoes two additional diathesis: outer passive with by-agent and outer passive without by-agent. In these cases, the object of the PP was extracted out of its canonical position to the front of the clause and was realised as a subject. This allows for sentences like The celebrity nuptial were not kept a lid on (by the press). Thus, the formal definition of outer passive (dian0VDN1Pn2outerpassive) is a conjunction of a subject, passive verb form, a canonical complement of Det and N coanchors and a by-agent. The agent is not present in agentless outer passive (dian0VDN1Pn2outershortpassive).

<Dian0VDN1Pn2>=

class  dian0VDN1Pn2active
{      
       dian0VDN1active[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VDN1Pn2passive
{      
       dian0VDN1passive[] ; CanPPIObject[] 
}

class  dian0VDN1Pn2shortpassive
{      
       dian0VDN1shortpassive[] ; CanPPIObject[]
}

class  dian0VDN1Pn2outerpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ; DetCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[] ; ByAgent[]                
}

class  dian0VDN1Pn2outershortpassive
{
        SubjectOuter[] ; passive[] ; DetCoanchorCan[] ; ObjectNCoanchorCan[]    
}

Defines dian0VDN1Pn2active, dian0VDN1Pn2outerpassive, dian0VDN1Pn2outershortpassive, dian0VDN1Pn2passive, dian0VDN1Pn2shortpassive (links are to index).

Rn0Vn1A2

The resultative family forms a complex predicate anchored by a verb and coanchored by an adjective. Similarly to n0Vn1, it subcategorises for a subject argument and a direct object. Therefore, each diathesis configuration (diaRn0Vn1A2active, diaRn0Vn1A2passive and diaRn0Vn1A2shortpassive) was defined as a conjunction of the corresponding n0Vn1 diathesis and an adjective phrase with Adj coanchor.

<DiaRn0Vn1A2>=
class  diaRn0Vn1A2active
{
        dian0Vn1active[]  ; AdjComplementCoanchor[]
}

class  diaRn0Vn1A2passive
{
        dian0Vn1passive[] ; AdjComplementCoanchor[]
}

class  diaRn0Vn1A2shortpassive
{
        dian0Vn1shortpassive[] ; AdjComplementCoanchor[]
}

Defines diaRn0Vn1A2active, diaRn0Vn1A2passive, diaRn0Vn1A2shortpassive (links are to index).

Rn0Vn1Pn2

The resultative family forms a complex predicate anchored by a verb and coanchored by a preposition. As n0Vn1, it subcategorises for a subject argument and a direct object. Therefore, each diathesis configuration (diaRn0Vn1Pn2active, diaRn0Vn1Pn2passive and diaRn0Vn1Pn2shortpassive) was defined as a conjunction of the corresponding n0Vn1 diathesis and a PP with Prep coanchor.

<DiaRn0Vn1Pn2>=
class  diaRn0Vn1Pn2active
{
        dian0Vn1active[]  ; PPIObject[]
}

class  diaRn0Vn1Pn2passive
{
        dian0Vn1passive[] ; PPIObject[]
}

class  diaRn0Vn1Pn2shortpassive
{
        dian0Vn1shortpassive[] ; PPIObject[]
}

Defines diaRn0Vn1Pn2active, diaRn0Vn1Pn2passive, diaRn0Vn1Pn2shortpassive (links are to index).

REn1VA2

The main verb in this resultative family is an ergative verb which forms a complex predicate with an Adj coanchor. Therefore, it was formalised in parallel to En1V: a conjunction of a subject, active verb form and an adjective phrase with Adj coanchor (diaREn1VA2active) .

<DiaREn1VA2>=
class  diaREn1VA2active
{
         Subject[] ; active[] ; AdjComplementCoanchor[]
}

Defines diaREn1VA2active (links are to index).

REn1VPn2

The main verb in this resultative family is an ergative verb which forms a complex predicate with the Prep node. Therefore, it was defined in parallel to En1V: a conjunction of a subject, active verb form and a PP with Prep coanchor (diaREn1VPn2active) .

<DiaREn1VPn2>=
class  diaREn1VPn2active
{
          Subject[] ; active[] ; PPIObject[]
}

Defines diaREn1VPn2active (links are to index).

Index: