Verb Families

In the TAG literature, a verb family comprises the set of various surface realisations of the same predicate-argument structure. A verb family is defined in terms of its subcategorisation frame, i.e. the arguments that a fully-meaning lexical item (a.k.a. a predicate or a lexical anchor) selects. To put it another way, a lexical anchor subcategorises for complements (which can appear in various syntactic environments) forming a clausal structure. Thus, each verb family selects only those verbs that undergo the same syntactic variations. The grammar in the tree-adjoining formalism should therefore be defined in terms of a finite set of verb families and a set of syntactic transformations within each family.

In XMG, a tree family is defined as a union of its possible syntactic configurations: active, passive with by-agent and passive without by-agent. This means that the same predicate-argument structure might be surface realised in several contexts and thus each syntactic transformation appears as an alternative of the other two transformations. Relative adjuncts (e.g., the day that..., the island where...) can freely adjoin in an active or a passive diathesis without influencing the grammaticality of the sentence. This is the reason why in XMG a tree family represents the union of its syntactic configurations without relative adjuncts and its syntactic configurations in the context of relative adjuncts.

A verb family is defined in three consecutive substeps as follows:

  1. Firstly, we defined each family in the context without relative adjuncts as a disjunction of an active, passive and agentless passive diathesis. If a tree was not anchored by a verb but by another part-of-speech (e.g., adjective, noun, preposition or an adverb), we assumed that there existed only one diathesis.
  2. Secondly, we defined each family in the context of relative adjuncts as a conjunction of the diathesis union (defined in step 1) plus relative adjuncts.
  3. Finally, we defined a tree family as a disjunction of the union of the syntactic configurations without relative adjuncts (defined in step 1) and the syntactic configurations in the context of relative adjuncts (defined in step 2)

The distinction between verb families is based on the XTAG division into 57 verb classes. These classes are:

Intransitive Family: n0V

The intransitive verb family is selected by full-meaning verbs whose subcategorisation frame has one position for a subject argument. These verbs do not undergo any passivisation and hence, the union of the diathesis alternations comprises the active configuration. Relative adjuncts can freely adjoin.

<n0V>=
class  Dian0V
{
        dian0Vactive[] 
}

class  Reln0V
{
        Dian0V[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0V
{
        Dian0V[] | Reln0V[]
}

Ergative Family: En1V

Ergative verbs are considered a subset of the transitive family n0Vn1 and therefore, they select both En1V and n0Vn1. The ergativity consists in using the direct object in the subject position as in: The sun melted the butter vs. The butter melted. On the surface level, these verbs undergo the same syntactic transformations as n0V family.

<En1V>=
class  DiaEn1V
{
       diaEn1Vactive[]  
}

class  RelEn1V
{
        DiaEn1V[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]   
}

class  En1V
{
        DiaEn1V[] | RelEn1V[]
}

Transitive Family: n0Vn1

To the transitive family belong verbs which have two open slots, one for a subject and one for an object argument. The verb does not impose any restrictions on the complexity of the transitive argument -- it can vary from a simple noun phrase to a complex relative structure with long-distance dependencies, gerunds or NP's with embedded clauses. Transitive verbs have the general property of undergoing passivisation.

<n0Vn1>=
class  Dian0Vn1
{
        dian0Vn1active[] 
        | dian0Vn1shortpassive[] 
        | dian0Vn1passive[] 
}

class  Reln0Vn1
{
        Dian0Vn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vn1
{
        Dian0Vn1[] | Reln0Vn1[] 
}

Ditransitive Family: n0Vn2n1

Ditransitive verbs are those which subcategorise for a subject argument and two object arguments (whose semantic roles are a beneficient and a theme). The ditransitive verbs select also n0Vn1NP2 family.

<n0Vn2n1>=
class  Dian0Vn2n1
{
        Dian0Vn2n1active[] 
        | Dian0Vn2n1shortpassive[] 
        | Dian0Vn2n1passive[] 
}

class  Rel0Vn2n1
{
        Dian0Vn2n1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vn2n1
{
        Dian0Vn2n1[] | Rel0Vn2n1[]
}
 

Ditransitive Verbs with a Prepositional Phrase: n0Vn1NP2

To this family belong verbs which select a noun complement and a prepositional phrase without any restrictions on the preposition (hence, it is defined as a substitution node). The prepositional phrase contributes to the grammaticality of the sentence and hence, it is modelled as an obligatory complement in the subcategorisation frame. These verbs undergo passivisation.

<n0Vn1NP2>=
class  Dian0Vn1NP2
{
         Dian0Vn1NP2active[] 
        | Dian0Vn1NP2shortpassive[] 
        | Dian0Vn1NP2passive[]  
}

class  Rel0Vn1NP2
{
        Dian0Vn1NP2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vn1NP2
{
        Dian0Vn1NP2[] | Rel0Vn1NP2[]
}

Ditransitive Verbs with PP with a Prep Coanchor: n0Vn1NP2

Verbs, undergoing the so called dative shift select both n0Vn2n1 and n0Vn1NP2. In the former, the semantic role of the beneficent is encoded as an indirect object without a preposition, whereas in the latter, the beneficent is realised as a prepositional phrase. The verbal item imposes constraints on the preposition making it a coanchor node. These verbs undergo passivisation.

<n0Vn1Pn2>=
class  Dian0Vn1Pn2
{
        dian0Vn1Pn2active[] 
        | dian0Vn1Pn2shortpassive[] 
        | dian0Vn1Pn2passive[]
}

class  Reln0Vn1Pn2
{
        Dian0Vn1Pn2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vn1Pn2
{       
        Dian0Vn1Pn2[] | Reln0Vn1Pn2[]
}

Transitive Family with a Sentential Complement: n0Vn1s2

This verb family is selected by verbs that require a noun complement and a sentential complement. The S node of the declarative tree is marked for adjunction to allow for long-distance dependencies. These verbs undergo passivisation.

<n0Vn1s2>=
class  Dian0Vn1s2
{
        dian0Vn1s2active[] 
        | dian0Vn1s2shortpassive[] 
        | dian0Vn1s2passive[]
}

class  Reln0Vn1s2
{
        Dian0Vn1s2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vn1s2
{
        Dian0Vn1s2[] | Reln0Vn1s2[]
}

Intransitive with Particle: n0pl

This family is selected by verbs anchored by a verbal item and coanchored by a particle. The meaning of a verb-particle pair cannot be determined by decomposing it into two stand-alone lexical items. Therefore, they are specified in one lexical entry in the lexicon. These verbs do not undergo any passivisation and their formal definition can be viewed in parallel to the one of n0V.

<n0Vpl>=
class  Dian0Vpl
{
        dian0Vplactive[]
}

class  Reln0Vpl
{
        Dian0Vpl[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vpl
{
        Dian0Vpl[] | Reln0Vpl[]
}

Transitive with Particle: n0Vpln1

To this family belong verbs which subcategorise for a subject and an object argument. In addition to that, they are coanchored by a particle. Its position is not restricted -- it can appear either before the direct object or after it, and this property of the verb-particle pairs distinguishes them from verb selecting a PP. The verb-particle meaning is non-compositional. These verbs undergo passive alternations and they are defined in parallel to n0Vn1.

<n0Vpln1>=
class  Dian0Vpln1
{
        dian0Vpln1active[] 
        | dian0Vpln1shortpassive[] 
        | dian0Vpln1passive[]
}

class  Reln0Vpln1
{
        Dian0Vpln1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vpln1
{
        Dian0Vpln1[] | Reln0Vpln1[]
}

Ditransitive with Particle: n0Vpln2n1

Verb-particle pairs subcategorising for two noun complements select this family. The tree is anchored by both the verbal item and the particle. The particle movement is the property that distinguishes between n0Vn1Pn2 and n0Vpln2n1. These verbs are not attested in passive.

<n0Vpln2n1>=
class  Dian0Vpln2n1
{
        dian0Vpln2n1active[]
}

class  Reln0Vpln2n1
{
        Dian0Vpln2n1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vpln2n1
{
        Dian0Vpln2n1[] | Reln0Vpln2n1[]
}

Intransitive with PP: n0Vpn1

This verb family is selected by verbs which subcategorise for a prepositional phrase. The PP is not an adjunct since without it the sentence is ungrammatical. In most cases, these are locative PPs. There are no restrictions on the preposition and hence it appears as a separate lexical entry. These verbs undergo passivisation.

<n0Vpn1>=
class  Dian0Vpn1
{
        dian0Vpn1active[] 
        | dian0Vpn1passive[]
        | dian0Vpn1shortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0Vpn1
{
        Dian0Vpn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vpn1
{
        Dian0Vpn1[] | Reln0Vpn1[]
}

Transitive with a PP Coanchor: n0VPn1

To this group belong verb-preposition pairs with non-compositional interpretation and thus, the tree is anchored by the verbal item and coanchored by the preposition. The preposition should appear in the same lexical entry as the verb. These verbs undergo passivisation.

<n0VPn1>=
class  Dian0VPn1
{
        dian0VPn1active[] 
        | dian0VPn1passive[]
        | dian0VPn1shortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0VPn1
{
        Dian0VPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0VPn1
{
        Dian0VPn1[] | Reln0VPn1[]
}

Verbs with a Sentential Complement: n0Vs1

Verbal lexical items which select a subject argument and a sentential complement belong to this tree family. Some verbs allow for both indicative and infinitive embedded clauses whereas others restrict the type of the clause. This should be indicated in the lexical entries for each verb.

<n0Vs1>=
class  Dian0Vs1
{
        dian0Vs1active[] 
}

class  Reln0Vs1
{
        Dian0Vs1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Vs1
{
        Dian0Vs1[] | Reln0Vs1[]
}

Intransitive with Adjective: n0Va1

To this tree family belong verbs which select a subject argument and an adjective complement. They can appear as bare intransitives or with an adjective. These verbs do not have passive forms.

<n0Va1>=
class  Dian0Va1
{
        dian0Va1active[] 
}

class  Reln0Va1
{
        Dian0Va1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Va1
{
        Dian0Va1[] | Reln0Va1[] 
}

Transitive with Sentential Subject: s0Vn1

Verbs, which require a sentential subject and a direct object select this tree family. In most cases, these verbs denote psychological states. They do not undergo passivisation.

<s0Vn1>=
class  Dias0Vn1
{
        dias0Vn1active[]
}

class  Rels0Vn1
{
        Dias0Vn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0Vn1
{
        Dias0Vn1[] | Rels0Vn1[]
}

Light verbs: n0lVN1

Verb-noun pairs whose interpretation cannot be computed from the meaning of their lexical items belong to the group of light verbs. Structurally, they resemble the tree descriptions of transitive and ditransitive verbs, with the only difference that the noun phrase cannot be extracted and that a verbal item should cooccur with a specific noun. Both the verb and the noun should appear in a single lexical entry. These verbs do not have passive forms.

<n0lVN1>=
class  Dian0lVN1
{
        dian0lVN1active[] 
}

class  Reln0lVN1
{
        Dian0lVN1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0lVN1
{
         Dian0lVN1[] | Reln0lVN1[]
}

Light Verbs with Complement: n0lVN1Pn2

To this tree family belong verb-noun pairs which select a beneficient complement. These are ditransitive verbs participating in the dative shift alternation where the beneficient is realised either before the noun anchor as an indirect object (in parallel to n0Vn2n1) or after it as an object headed by the to-preposition (in parallel to n0Vn1Pn2). These verbs undergo passivisation; agentless passive forms are attested only with gerund verbs.

<n0lVN1Pn2>=
class  Dian0lVN1Pn2
{
        dian0lVn2N1active[] 
        | dian0lVn2N1passive[] 
        | dian0lVn2N1NPgerundshortpassive[]

        | dian0lVN1Pn2active[] 
        | dian0lVN1Pn2passive[] 
        | dian0lVN1Pn2NPgerundshortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0lVN1Pn2
{
        Dian0lVN1Pn2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]      
}

class  n0lVN1Pn2
{
        Dian0lVN1Pn2[] | Reln0lVN1Pn2[]
}

NP It-Cleft: ItVn1s2

English cleft sentences are defined as initial trees with four compulsory elements: the dummy it subject; the main verb be; the cleft component; the sentential clause. The declarative trees are anchored by both the dummy subject and by the main verb. The category of the cleft element in ItVn1s2 family is a a noun phrase. There are no passive forms.

<ItVn1s2>=
class  DiaItVn1s2
{
        diaItVn1s2[]
}

class  RelItVn1s2
{
        DiaItVn1s2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  ItVn1s2
{
        DiaItVn1s2[] | RelItVn1s2[]
}

PP It-Cleft: ItVpn1s2

This tree family is selected by the dummy subject it and by the main verb be. The cleft element is a prepositional phrase.

<ItVpn1s2>=
class  DiaItVpn1s2
{
        diaItVpn1s2[]
}

class  RelItVpn1s2
{
        DiaItVpn1s2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  ItVpn1s2
{
        DiaItVpn1s2[] | RelItVpn1s2[]
}

Adverb It-Cleft: ItVad1s2

This tree family is selected by the dummy subject it and by the main verb be. The cleft element is an adverb.

<ItVad1s2>=
class  DiaItVad1s2
{
        diaItVad1s2[]
}

class  RelItVad1s2
{
        DiaItVad1s2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  ItVad1s2
{
        DiaItVad1s2[] | RelItVad1s2[] 
}

Adjective Small Clauses: n0A1

Adjective small clauses are anchored not by verbs but by adjectives. Copulas and raising verbs can adjoin in to form a sentence. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0A1>=
class  Reln0A1
{
        Dian0A1 [] ; RelativeAdjunct[] 
} 

class  n0A1
{
        Dian0A1[] | Reln0A1[]
}


Adjective Small Clauses with Sentential Complement: n0A1s1

This family is anchored not by a verb but by an adjective. It subcategorises for a subject argument and a sentential complement, which can be infinitive (without a complementiser) or indicative (with a complemenetiser). Copulas and raising verbs can be adjoined. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0A1s1>=
class  Reln0A1s1 
{
        Dian0A1s1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0A1s1
{
        Dian0A1s1[] | Reln0A1s1[]
}

Adjective Small Clauses with Sentential Subject: s0A1

This tree family is anchored by an adjective which requires a sentential subject. The subject can be indicative (in which case the complementiser is obligatory) or infinitive (in which case there is no complementiser). Copulas and raising verbs can adjoin in the VP node. This family does not have any diathesis transformations.

<s0A1>=
class  Rels0A1
{
        Dias0A1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0A1
{
        Dias0A1[] | Rels0A1[]
}

Equative BE: n0BEn1

This tree family is selected by the verb be. It requires two non-predicative arguments which can swap their places without rendering different meaning or ungrammaticality. This family is attested only as an inverted question. This family does not undergo passivisation and does not appear in the context of a relative adjunct.

<n0BEn1>=
class  n0BEn1
{
        Dian0BEn1[]
}

NP Small Clause: n0N1

This tree family is not anchored by a verb but by a noun. In contrast to n0BEn1, the two noun phrases are not interchangeable. Copulas and raising verbs can be adjoined. These verbs do not undergo any diathesis transformations.

<n0N1>=
class  Reln0N1
{
        Dian0N1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0N1
{
        Dian0N1[] | Reln0N1[]
}

NP Small Clause with Sentential Complement: n0N1s1

This tree family is anchored by nouns which select a subject argument and a sentential complement. The sentential complement can be indicative with a complementiser or infinitive without a complementiser. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0N1s1>=
class  Reln0N1s1
{
        Dian0N1s1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0N1s1
{
        Dian0N1s1[] | Reln0N1s1[]
}

NP Small Clause with Sentential Subject: s0N1

This tree family is selected by nouns which require a sentential subject. It can appear either in indicative or in infinitive. This family does not undergo any diathesis alternations.

<s0N1>=
class  Rels0N1
{
        Dias0N1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0N1
{
        Dias0N1[] | Rels0N1[]
}

PP Small Clause: n0Pn1

To this tree family belong prepositions which subcategorise for two noun phrases: a subject argument and an object of a preposition. Copulas and raising verbs can be adjoined. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0Pn1>=
class  Reln0Pn1
{
        Dian0Pn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0Pn1
{
        Dian0Pn1[] | Reln0Pn1[]
}

Exhaustive PP Small Clause: n0P1

To this tree family belong exhaustive prepositions that select only a subject argument. Copulas and raising verbs can be adjoined. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0P1>=
class  Reln0P1
{
        Dian0P1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0P1
{
        Dian0P1[] | Reln0P1[]
}

PP Small Clause with Sentential Subject: s0Pn1

This tree family is selected by prepositions which select a noun complement and an indicative or infinitive sentential subject. There are no diathesis alternations.

<s0Pn1>=
class  Rels0Pn1
{
        Dias0Pn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0Pn1
{
        Dias0Pn1[] | Rels0Pn1[]
}

Intransitive Sentential Subject: s0V

This tree family is selected only by the verb matter. It should cooccur with a sentential subject. The type of the sentential clause can be indicative (with an obligatory complementiser) or infinitive (the complementiser is not required). This verb does not undergo any passivisation.

<s0V>=
class  Dias0V
{
        dias0Vactive[]   
}

class  Rels0V
{
        Dias0V[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0V
{
        Dias0V[] | Rels0V[]
}

Sentential Subject with to complement: s0Vton1

To this family belong verbs which require a sentential subject and a complement headed by the to-preposition. The type of the sentential clause can be indicative (with an obligatory complementiser) or infinitive (the complementiser is not required). There are no passive forms.

<s0Vton1>=
class  Dias0Vton1
{
        dias0Vton1active[]
}

class  Rels0Vton1
{
        Dias0Vton1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0Vton1
{
        Dias0Vton1[] | Rels0Vton1[]
}

PP Small Clause with Adv and Prep anchors: n0ARBPn1

This family is selected by complex, multi-word prepositions containing a prepositional anchor node and an adverbial coanchor. The preposition requires an object argument. There are no diathesis transformations.

<n0ARBPn1>=
class  Reln0ARBPn1
{
        Dian0ARBPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0ARBPn1
{
        Dian0ARBPn1[] | Reln0ARBPn1[]
}

PP Small Clause with Adj and Prep anchors: n0APn1

This family is selected by multi-word prepositions containing an adjective and a preposition. The tree is anchored by the preposition and coanchored by the adjective node. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0APn1>=
class  Reln0APn1
{
        Dian0APn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
} 

class  n0APn1
{
        Dian0APn1[] | Reln0APn1[]
}

PP Small Clause with N and Prep anchors: n0NPn1

This family is selected by multi-word prepositions containing a noun and a preposition. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0NPn1>=
class  Reln0NPn1
{
        Dian0NPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0NPn1
{
        Dian0NPn1[] | Reln0NPn1[]       
}

PP Small Clause with P anchors: n0PPn1

This family is selected by multi-word prepositions where the two lexical items are prepositions. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0PPn1>=
class  Reln0PPn1
{
        Dian0PPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0PPn1
{
        Dian0PPn1[] | Reln0PPn1[]
}

PP Small Clause with Prep and N anchors: n0PNaPn1

This family is multiply anchored by a three-word preposition where the first lexical item is a preposition, the second one a noun and the third one a preposition. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0PNaPn1>=
class  Reln0PNaPn1
{
        Dian0PNaPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0PNaPn1
{
        Dian0PNaPn1[] | Reln0PNaPn1[]
}

Sentential Subject PP Small Clause with Adv and Prep anchors: s0ARBPn1

This family is selected by complex, multi-word prepositions containing a prepositional anchor node and an adverbial coanchor. The preposition requires an object argument and a sentential subject. There are no diathesis transformations.

<s0ARBPn1>=
class  Rels0ARBPn1
{
        Dias0ARBPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0ARBPn1
{
        Dias0ARBPn1[] | Rels0ARBPn1[]
}

Sentential Subject PP Small Clause with Adj and Prep anchors: s0APn1

This family is selected by multi-word prepositions containing an adjective anchor and a prepositional coanchor. The complex preposition should cooccur with a sentential subject in indicative (with an obligatory complementiser) or infinitive (complementiser is not required). There are no diathesis alternations.

<s0APn1>=
class  Rels0APn1
{
        Dias0APn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0APn1
{
        Dias0APn1[] | Rels0APn1[]
}

Sentential Subject PP Small Clause with N and Prep anchors: s0NPn1

This family is selected by multi-word prepositions containing a noun and a preposition. They subcategorise for a sentential subject, which can be either in indicative (with an obligatory complementiser) or in infinitive (complementiser is not required). There are no diathesis alternations.

<s0NPn1>=
class  Rels0NPn1
{
        Dias0NPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0NPn1
{
        Dias0NPn1[] | Rels0NPn1[]
}

Sentential Subject PP Small Clause with Prep anchors: s0PPn1

This family is selected by multi-word prepositions where the two lexical items are prepositions. They subcategorise for a sentential subject in indicative (with obligatory complementiser) or infinitive (complementiser is not required). There are no diathesis alternations.

<s0PPn1>=
class  Rels0PPn1
{
        Dias0PPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0PPn1
{
        Dias0PPn1[] | Rels0PPn1[]
}

Sentential Subject PP Small Clause with Prep and N anchors: s0PNaPn1

This family is multiply anchored by a three-word preposition where the first lexical item is a preposition, the second one a noun and the third one a preposition. The sentential subject can appear in indicative (with obligatory complementiser) or infinitive (complementiser is not required). There are no diathesis alternations.

<s0PNaPn1>=
class  Rels0PNaPn1
{
        Dias0PNaPn1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  s0PNaPn1
{
        Dias0PNaPn1[] | Rels0PNaPn1[]
}

Sentential Subject and Small Clause Sentential Complement: s0Vs1

This tree family is selected only by the verb make. The sentential subject can appear in indicative (with obligatory complementiser) or in infinitive (the complementiser is not required). The S node of the sentential complement in the declarative tree is marked as an adjunction node to maintain long-distance dependencies. The S complement is a small clause anchored by an adjective. There are no passive alternations.

<s0Vs1>=
class  s0Vs1
{
        dias0Vs1active[]
}

Locative Adverbial Small Clause: n0n1ARB

To this tree family belong adverbs which subcategorise for a subject argument and a locative. The locative should precede the adverb. There are no diathesis alternations.

<n0n1ARB>=
class  n0n1ARB
{
        Dian0n1ARB[]
}

Exceptional case marking (ECM): Xn0Vs1

This tree family can be regarded in contrast to the n0Vn1s2 family. The ECM verbs have two open slots: one for the subject argument and one for the sentential complement. Exceptionally, these verbs assign accusative case to the subject of the sentential complement (in contrast to n0Vn1s2). The sentential complement can appear either as infinitive or as a bare infinitive (without to). As in any declarative tree with a sentential complement, the S node is marked for adjunction to allow for long-distance dependencies. There are no passive forms.

<Xn0Vs1>=
class  DiaXn0Vs1
{
        diaXn0Vs1active[]
}

class  RelXn0Vs1
{
        DiaXn0Vs1[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  Xn0Vs1
{
        DiaXn0Vs1[] | RelXn0Vs1[]
}

Idiom with V, D and N anchors: n0VDN1

This tree family is selected by frozen multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb, determiner and a noun. Structurally, they resemble the transitive trees with the only difference being that the number of morphological transformations they undergo is more limited.

<n0VDN1>=
class  Dian0VDN1
{
         dian0VDN1active[]
        | dian0VDN1passive[]
        | dian0VDN1shortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0VDN1
{
        dian0VDN1active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0VDN1
{
        Dian0VDN1[] | Reln0VDN1[]
}

Idiom with V, D, A and N anchors: n0VADN1

This tree family is selected by multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb, determiner, adjective and a noun. Structurally, they resemble the transitive trees with the only difference being that the number of morphological transformations they undergo is more limited.

<n0VDAN1>=
class  Dian0VDAN1
{
        dian0VDAN1active[]
        | dian0VDAN1passive[]
        | dian0VDAN1shortpassive[]
}


class  Reln0VDAN1
{
        dian0VDAN1active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0VDAN1
{
        Dian0VDAN1[] | Reln0VDAN1[]
}

Idiom with V and N anchors: n0VN1

This tree family is selected by multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb and a noun. Structurally, they resemble the transitive trees with the only difference being that the number of morphological transformations they undergo is more limited.

<n0VN1>=
class  Dian0VN1
{
        dian0VN1active[] 
        | dian0VN1passive[]
        | dian0VN1shortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0VN1
{
        dian0VN1active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
} 

class  n0VN1
{
        Dian0VN1[] | Reln0VN1[]
}

Idiom with V, A and N anchors: n0VAN1

This tree family is selected by multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb, adjective and a noun. Structurally, they resemble the transitive trees with the only difference being that the number of morphological transformations they undergo is more limited.

<n0VAN1>=
class  Dian0VAN1
{
        dian0VAN1active[]
        | dian0VAN1passive[]
        | dian0VAN1shortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0VAN1
{
        dian0VAN1active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]   
}

class  n0VAN1
{
        Dian0VAN1[] | Reln0VAN1[]
}

Idiom with V, D, A, N and Prep anchors: n0VDAN1Pn2

This tree family is selected by multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb, determiner, noun and a preposition. Structurally, they resemble the ditransitive trees with shifted dative.

<n0VDAN1Pn2>=
class  Dian0VDAN1Pn2
{
        dian0VDAN1Pn2active[]
        | dian0VDAN1Pn2passive[]
        | dian0VDAN1Pn2shortpassive[]
        | dian0VDAN1Pn2outerpassive[]
        | dian0VDAN1Pn2outershortpassive[]
}


class  Reln0VDAN1Pn2
{
        dian0VDAN1Pn2active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0VDAN1Pn2
{
        Dian0VDAN1Pn2[] | Reln0VDAN1Pn2[]
}

Idiom with V, A, N and Prep anchors: n0VAN1Pn2

This tree family is selected by multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb, adjective, noun and a preposition. Structurally, they resemble the ditransitive trees with shifted dative.

<n0VAN1Pn2>=
class  Dian0VAN1Pn2
{
        dian0VAN1Pn2active[]
        | dian0VAN1Pn2passive[]
        | dian0VAN1Pn2shortpassive[]
        | dian0VAN1Pn2outerpassive[]
        | dian0VAN1Pn2outershortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0VAN1Pn2
{
        dian0VAN1Pn2active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0VAN1Pn2
{
        Dian0VAN1Pn2[] | Reln0VAN1Pn2[]
}

Idiom with V, N and Prep anchors: n0VN1Pn2

This tree family is selected by multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb, noun and a preposition. Structurally, they resemble the ditransitive trees with shifted dative.

<n0VN1Pn2>=
class  Dian0VN1Pn2
{
        dian0VN1Pn2active[]
        | dian0VN1Pn2passive[]
        | dian0VN1Pn2shortpassive[]
        | dian0VN1Pn2outerpassive[]
        | dian0VN1Pn2outershortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0VN1Pn2
{
        dian0VN1Pn2active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0VN1Pn2
{
        Dian0VN1Pn2[] | Reln0VN1Pn2[] 
}

Idiom with V, D, N and Prep anchors: n0VDN1Pn2

This tree family is selected by multi-word expressions with non-compositional meaning interpretation. This family is anchored by a verb, determiner, noun and a preposition. Structurally, they resemble the ditransitive trees with shifted dative.

<n0VDN1Pn2>=
class  Dian0VDN1Pn2
{
        dian0VDN1Pn2active[]
        | dian0VDN1Pn2passive[]
        | dian0VDN1Pn2shortpassive[]
        | dian0VDN1Pn2outerpassive[]
        | dian0VDN1Pn2outershortpassive[]
}

class  Reln0VDN1Pn2
{
        dian0VDN1Pn2active[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  n0VDN1Pn2
{
        Dian0VDN1Pn2[] | Reln0VDN1Pn2[]
}

Resultatives with V and A anchors: Rn0Vn1A2

This tree family is selected by complex verb-adjective predicates which denote completeness of the verb. They undergo passive transformations.

<Rn0Vn1A2>=
class  DiaRn0Vn1A2
{      diaRn0Vn1A2active[]
       | diaRn0Vn1A2passive[]
       | diaRn0Vn1A2shortpassive[]
}

class  RelRn0Vn1A2
{
        DiaRn0Vn1A2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  Rn0Vn1A2
{
        DiaRn0Vn1A2[] | RelRn0Vn1A2[]
}

Resultatives with V and Prep anchors: Rn0Vn1Pn2

To this tree family belong verb-preposition pairs which form a complex resultative predicate. The preposition requires an object node. They undergo passive alternations.

<Rn0Vn1Pn2>=
class  DiaRn0Vn1Pn2
{      diaRn0Vn1Pn2active[]
       | diaRn0Vn1Pn2passive[]
       | diaRn0Vn1Pn2shortpassive[]

}

class  RelRn0Vn1Pn2
{
        DiaRn0Vn1Pn2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
} 

class  Rn0Vn1Pn2
{
        DiaRn0Vn1Pn2[] | RelRn0Vn1Pn2[]
}

Resultatives with ergative V and A anchors: REn1VA2

To this tree family belong ergative verb-adjective pairs which form a complex resultative predicate. They undergo passive alternations.

<REn1VA2>=
class  DiaREn1VA2
{
        diaREn1VA2active[]
}

class  RelREn1VA2
{
        DiaREn1VA2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
} 

class  REn1VA2
{
        DiaREn1VA2[] | RelREn1VA2[]
}

Resultatives with ergative V and Prep anchors: REn1VPn2

To this tree family belong ergative verb-preposition pairs which form a complex resultative predicate. The preposition requires an object node. They undergo passive alternations.

<REn1VPn2>=
class  DiaREn1VPn2
{
        diaREn1VPn2active[]
}

class  RelREn1VPn2
{
        DiaREn1VPn2[] ; RelativeAdjunct[]
}

class  REn1VPn2
{
        DiaREn1VPn2[] | RelREn1VPn2[]
}