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Conference paper

Comparing Task-Based and Socially Intelligent Behaviour in a Robot Bartender, M. Giuliani, R. Petrick, M.E. Foster, A. Gaschler, A. Isard, M. Pateraki, and M. Sigalas, Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI 2013), pages 263-270, 2013.

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We address the question of whether service robots that interact with humans in public spaces must express socially appropriate behaviour. To do so, we implemented a robot bartender which is able to take drink orders from humans and serve drinks to them. By using a high-level automated planner, we explore two different robot interaction styles: in the task only setting, the robot simply fulfils its goal of asking customers for drink orders and serving them drinks; in the socially intelligent setting, the robot additionally acts in a manner socially appropriate to the bartender scenario, based on the behaviour of humans observed in natural bar interactions. The results of a user study show that the interactions with the socially intelligent robot were somewhat more efficient, but the two implemented behaviour settings had only a small influence on the subjective ratings. However, there were objective factors that influenced participant ratings: the overall duration of the interaction had a positive influence on the ratings, while the number of system order requests had a negative influence. We also found a cultural difference: German participants gave the system higher pre-test ratings than participants who interacted in English, although the post-test scores were similar.