Journal Papers

Coco, Moreno I., Frank Keller, and George L. Malcolm. 2016. Anticipation in Real-World Scenes: The Role of Visual Context and Visual Memory. Cognitive Science 40:8, 1995-2024.

Bernardi, Raffaella, Ruket Cakici, Desmond Elliott, Aykut Erdem, Erkut Erdem, Nazli Ikizler-Cinbis, Frank Keller, Adrian Muscat and Barbara Plank. 2016. Automatic Description Generation from Images: A Survey of Models, Datasets, and Evaluation Measures. Journal of Artifical Intelligence Research 55, 409-442.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2015. Integrating Mechanisms of Visual Guidance in Naturalistic Language Production. Cognitive Processing 6:2, 131-150.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2015. The Interaction of Visual and Linguistic Saliency during Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 68:1, 46-74.

Coco, Moreno I., George L. Malcolm, and Frank Keller. 2014. The Interplay of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Mechanisms in Visual Guidance During Object Naming. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 67:6, 1096-1120.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2014. Classification of Visual and Linguistic Tasks using Eye-movement Features. Journal of Vision 14:3, 1-18. [Dataset]

Clarke, Alasdair D. F., Moreno I. Coco, and Frank Keller. 2013. The Impact of Attentional, Linguistic and Visual Features during Object Naming. Frontiers in Psychology 4:927, 1-12. [Dataset]

Demberg, Vera, Frank Keller, and Alexander Koller. 2013. Incremental, Predictive Parsing with Psycholinguistically Motivated Tree-Adjoining Grammar. Computational Linguistics 39:4, 1025-1066. [Software]

Dziemianko, Michal and Frank Keller. 2013. Memory Modulated Saliency: A Computational Model of the Incremental Learning of Target Locations in Visual Search. Visual Cognition 21:3, 277-305.

Frank, Stella, Sharon Goldwater, and Frank Keller. 2013. Adding Sentence Types to a Model of Syntactic Category Acquisition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5:3, 495-521.

Dubey, Amit, Frank Keller, and Patrick Sturt. 2013. Probabilistic Modeling of Discourse-Aware Sentence Processing. Topics in Cognitive Science 5:3, 425-451.

Sangati, Federico and Frank Keller. 2013. Incremental Tree Substitution Grammar for Parsing and Sentence Prediction. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 1:May, 111-124.

Arai, Manabu and Frank Keller. 2013. The use of Verb-specific Information for Prediction in Sentence Processing. Language and Cognitive Processes 28:4, 525-560.

Levy, Roger P. and Frank Keller. 2013. Expectation and Locality Effects in German Verb-final Structures. Journal of Memory and Language 68:2, 199-222.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2012. Scan Patterns predict Sentence Production in the Cross-modal Processing of Visual Scenes. Cognitive Science 36:7, 1204-1223. [Dataset]

Reitter, David, Frank Keller, and Johanna D. Moore. 2011. A Computational Cognitive Model of Syntactic Priming. Cognitive Science 35:4, 587-637.

Sturt, Patrick, Frank Keller, and Amit Dubey. 2010. Syntactic priming in comprehension: Parallelism effects with and without coordination. Journal of Memory and Language 62:4, 333-351.

Padˇ, Ulrike, Matthew W. Crocker, and Frank Keller. 2009. A Probabilistic Model of Semantic Plausibility in Sentence Processing. Cognitive Science, 33:5, 794-838. [Dataset]

Keller, Frank, Subahshini Gunasekharan, Neil Mayo, and Martin Corley. 2009. Timing Accuracy of Web Experiments: A Case Study Using the WebExp Software Package. Behavior Research Methods 41:1, 1-12. [Software]

Dubey, Amit, Frank Keller, and Patrick Sturt. 2008. A Probabilistic Corpus-based Model of Syntactic Parallelism. Cognition 109:3, 326-344.

Demberg, Vera and Frank Keller. 2008. Data from Eye-tracking Corpora as Evidence for Theories of Syntactic Processing Complexity. Cognition 109:2, 193-210.

Scheepers, Christoph, Frank Keller, and Mirella Lapata. 2008. Evidence for Serial Coercion: A Time Course Analysis Using the Visual-World Paradigm. Cognitive Psychology 56:1, 1-29.

Alexopoulou, Theodora and Frank Keller. 2007. Locality, Cyclicity and Resumption: At the Interface between the Grammar and the Human Sentence Processor. Language 83:1, 110-160.

Lapata, Mirella and Frank Keller. 2005. Web-based Models for Natural Language Processing. ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing 2:1, 1-31.

Sorace, Antonella and Frank Keller. 2005. Gradience in Linguistic Data. Lingua 115:11, 1497-1524.

Keller, Frank and Mirella Lapata. 2003. Using the Web to Obtain Frequencies for Unseen Bigrams. Computational Linguistics 29:3, 459-484. [Dataset]

Keller, Frank and Antonella Sorace. 2003. Gradient Auxiliary Selection and Impersonal Passivization in German: An Experimental Investigation. Journal of Linguistics 39:1, 57-108.

Lapata, Mirella, Frank Keller, and Christoph Scheepers. 2003. Intra-sentential Context Effects on the Interpretation of Logical Metonymy. Cognitive Science 27:4, 649-668.

Keller, Frank and Ash Asudeh. 2002. Probabilistic Learning Algorithms and Optimality Theory. Linguistic Inquiry 33:2, 225-244.

Keller, Frank and Theodora Alexopoulou. 2001. Phonology Competes with Syntax: Experimental Evidence for the Interaction of Word Order and Accent Placement in the Realization of Information Structure. Cognition 79:3, 301-372.

Lapata, Maria, Frank Keller, and Sabine Schulte im Walde. 2001. Verb Frame Frequency as a Predictor of Verb Bias. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 30:4, 419-435.

Corley, Steffan, Martin Corley, Frank Keller, Matthew W. Crocker, and Shari Trewin. 2001. Finding Syntactic Structure in Unparsed Corpora: The Gsearch Corpus Query System. Computers and the Humanities 35:2, 81-94.

PhD Thesis

Keller, Frank. 2000. Gradience in Grammar: Experimental and Computational Aspects of Degrees of Grammaticality. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Conference Papers

Hahn, Michael, and Frank Keller. 2016. Modeling Human Reading with Neural Attention. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 85-95. Austin.

Barrett, Maria, Joachim Bingel, Frank Keller, and Anders S°gaard. 2016. Weakly Supervised Part-of-speech Tagging Using Eye-tracking Data. In Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Short Papers, 579-584. Berlin.

Barrett, Maria, Frank Keller, and Anders S°gaard. 2016. Cross-lingual Transfer of Correlations between Parts of Speech and Gaze Features. In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 1330-1339. Osaka.

Gella, Spandana, Mirella Lapata, and Frank Keller. 2016. Unsupervised Visual Sense Disambiguation for Verbs using Multimodal Embeddings. In Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 182-192. San Diego. [Dataset]

Papadopoulos, Dim P., Jasper R. R. Uijlings, Frank Keller, and Vittorio Ferrari. 2016. We don't need no bounding-boxes: Training object class detectors using only human verification. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 854-863. Las Vegas.

Konstas, Ioannis and Frank Keller. 2015. Semantic Role Labeling Improves Incremental Parsing. In Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, 1191-1201. Beijing. [Software]

Diego Frassinelli and Frank Keller. 2015. Cumulative Contextual Facilitation in Word Activation and Processing: Evidence from Distributional Modelling. In David C. Noelle, Rick Dale, Anne S. Warlaumont, Jeff Yoshimi, Teenie Matlock, Carolyn D. Jennings and Paul P. Maglio, eds., Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 734-739. Pasadena.

Papadopoulos, Dim P., Alasdair D. F. Clarke, Frank Keller, and Vittorio Ferrari. 2014. Training Object Class Detectors from Eye Tracking Data. In David Fleet, Tomas Pajdla, Bernt Schiele, Tinne Tuytelaars, eds., Proceedings of 13th European Conference on Computer Vision, Part V, 361-376. Zurich. [Dataset]

Konstas, Ioannis, Frank Keller, Vera Demberg, and Mirella Lapata. 2014. Incremental Semantic Role Labeling with Tree Adjoining Grammar. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 301-312. Doha. [Software]

Elliott, Desmond, Victor Lavrenko, and Frank Keller. 2014. Query-by-Example Image Retrieval using Visual Dependency Representations. In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 109-120. Dublin. [Dataset]

Elliott, Desmond and Frank Keller. 2014. Comparing Automatic Evaluation Measures for Image Description. In Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Short Papers, 452-457. Baltimore. [Dataset]

Elliott, Desmond and Frank Keller. 2013. Image Description using Visual Dependency Representations. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 1292-1302. Seattle. [Dataset]

Frank, Stella, Frank Keller and Sharon Goldwater. 2013. Exploring the Utility of Joint Morphological and Syntactic Learning from Child-directed Speech. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 30-41. Seattle.

Michal Dziemanko, Alasdair Clarke, and Frank Keller. 2013. Object-based Saliency as a Predictor of Attention in Visual Tasks. In Markus Knauff, Natalie Sebanz, Michael Pauen, and Ipke Wachsmuth, eds., Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 2237-2242. Berlin.

Frassinelli, Diego, Frank Keller, and Christoph Scheepers. 2013. The Effect of Incremental Context on Conceptual Processing: Evidence from Visual World and Reading Experiments. In Markus Knauff, Natalie Sebanz, Michael Pauen, and Ipke Wachsmuth, eds., Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 460-465. Berlin.

Allison, Ben, Frank Keller, and Moreno I. Coco. 2012. A Bayesian Model of the Effect of Object Context Visual Attention. In Naomi Miyake, David Peebles, and Richard P. Cooper, eds., Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1278-1283. Sapporo.

Frassinelli, Diego and Frank Keller. 2012. The Plausibility of Semantic Properties Generated by a Distributional Model: Evidence from a Visual World Experiment. In Naomi Miyake, David Peebles, and Richard P. Cooper, eds., Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1560-1565. Sapporo.

Dubey, Amit, Frank Keller, and Patrick Sturt. 2011. A Model of Discourse Predictions in Human Sentence Processing. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 304-312. Edinburgh.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2011. Temporal Dynamics of Scan Patterns in Comprehension and Production. In Laura Carlson, Christoph Hoelscher, and Thomas F. Shipley, eds., Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 2302-2307. Boston.

Dziemianko, Michal, Frank Keller, and Moreno I. Coco. 2011. Incremental Learning of Target Locations in Visual Search. In Laura Carlson, Christoph Hoelscher, and Thomas F. Shipley, eds., Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1729-1734. Boston.

Frank Keller. 2010. Cognitively Plausible Models of Human Language Processing. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Short Papers, 60-67. Uppsala.

Mitchell, Jeff, Mirella Lapata, Vera Demberg, and Frank Keller. 2010. Syntactic and Semantic Factors in Processing Difficulty: An Integrated Measure. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 196-206. Uppsala.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2010. Scan Patterns on Visual Scenes predict Sentence Production. In Stellan Ohlsson and Richard Catrambone, eds., Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1934-1939. Portland.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2010. Sentence Production in Naturalistic Scenes with Referential Ambiguity. In Stellan Ohlsson and Richard Catrambone, eds., Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1070-1075. Portland.

Gerard, Jeffrey, Frank Keller, and Themis Palpanas. 2010. Corpus Evidence for Age Effects on Priming in Child Language. In Stellan Ohlsson and Richard Catrambone, eds., Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 218-223. Portland.

Morgan, Emily, Frank Keller, and Mark Steedman. 2010. A Bottom-Up Parsing Model of Local Coherence Effects. In Stellan Ohlsson and Richard Catrambone, eds., Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1559-1564. Portland.

Coco, Moreno I. and Frank Keller. 2009. The Impact of Visual Information on Reference Assignment in Sentence Production. In Niels Taatgen and Hedderik van Rijn, eds., Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 274-279. Amsterdam.

Demberg, Vera and Frank Keller. 2009. A Computational Model of Prediction in Human Parsing: Unifying Locality and Surprisal Effects. In Niels Taatgen and Hedderik van Rijn, eds., Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1888-1893. Amsterdam. [Software]

Frank, Stella, Sharon Goldwater, and Frank Keller. 2009. Evaluating Models of Syntactic Category Acquisition without Using a Gold Standard. In Niels Taatgen and Hedderik van Rijn, eds., Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 2576-2581. Amsterdam.

Alex, Beatrice, Amit Dubey, and Frank Keller. 2007. Using Foreign Inclusion Detection to Improve Parsing Performance. In Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning, 151-160. Prague.

Reitter, David and Frank Keller. 2007. Against Sequence Priming: Evidence from Constituents and Distituents in Corpus Data. In Danielle S. McNamara and J. Greg Trafton, eds., Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1421-1426. Nashville.

Demberg, Vera and Frank Keller. 2007. Eye-tracking Evidence for Integration Cost Effects in Corpus Data. In Danielle S. McNamara and J. Greg Trafton, eds., Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 947-952. Nashville.

Dubey, Amit, Frank Keller, and Patrick Sturt. 2007. The Effect of Phonological Parallelism in Coordination: Evidence from Eye-tracking. In Proceedings of the 2nd European Cognitive Science Conference, 131-136. Delphi.

Lapata, Mirella and Frank Keller. 2007. An Information Retrieval Approach to Sense Ranking. In Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 348-355. Rochester.

Reitter, David, Julia Hockenmaier, and Frank Keller. 2006. Priming Effects in Combinatory Categorial Grammar. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 308-316. Sydney.

Dubey, Amit, Frank Keller, and Patrick Sturt. 2006. Integrating Syntactic Priming into an Incremental Probabilistic Parser, with an Application to Psycholinguistic Modeling. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 417-424. Sydney.

Reitter, David, Frank Keller, and Johanna Moore. 2006. Computational Modelling of Structural Priming in Dialogue. In Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Short Papers, 121-124. New York.

Reitter, David, Johanna Moore, and Frank Keller. 2006. Priming of Syntactic Rules in Task-Oriented Dialogue and Spontaneous Conversation. In Ron Sun, ed., Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 685-690. Vancouver.

Keller, Frank and Christoph Scheepers. 2006. Context Effects on Frame Probability Independent of Verb Sense Ambiguity. In Ron Sun, ed., Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1599-1604. Vancouver.

Padˇ, Ulrike, Matthew Crocker, and Frank Keller. 2006. Combining Syntax and Thematic Fit in a Probabilistic Model of Sentence Processing. In Ron Sun, ed., Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 657-662. Vancouver. [Dataset]

Padˇ, Ulrike, Frank Keller, and Matthew Crocker. 2006. Modeling Semantic Role Plausiblity in Human Sentence Processing. In Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 345-352. Trento.

Dubey, Amit, Patrick Sturt, and Frank Keller. 2005. Parallelism in Coordination as an Instance of Syntactic Priming: Evidence from Corpus-based Modeling. In Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference and the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 827-834. Vancouver.

Arun, Abhishek and and Frank Keller. 2005. Lexicalization in Crosslinguistic Probabilistic Parsing: The Case of French. In Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 306-313. Ann Arbor, MI.

Keller, Frank and Theodora Alexopoulou. 2005. A Crosslinguistic, Experimental Study of Resumptive Pronouns and that-Trace Effects. In Bruno G. Bara, Lawrence Barsalou, and Monica Bucciarelli, eds., Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1120-1125. Stresa.

Keller, Frank. 2004. The Entropy Rate Principle as a Predictor of Processing Effort: An Evaluation against Eye-tracking Data. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 317-324. Barcelona.

Lapata, Mirella and Frank Keller. 2004. The Web as a Baseline: Evaluating the Performance of Unsupervised Web-based Models for a Range of NLP Tasks. In Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 121-128. Boston.

Baldewein, Ulrike and Frank Keller. 2004. Modeling Attachment Decisions with a Probabilistic Parser: The Case of Head Final Structures. In Kenneth Forbus, Dedre Gentner, and Terry Regier, eds., Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 73-78. Chicago.

Dubey, Amit and Frank Keller. 2003. Probabilistic Parsing for German using Sister-Head Dependencies. In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 96-103. Sapporo.

Keller, Frank. 2003. A Probabilistic Parser as a Model of Global Processing Difficulty. In Richard Alterman and David Kirsh, eds., Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 646-651. Boston.

Keller, Frank. 2003. A Psychophysical Law for Linguistic Judgments. In Richard Alterman and David Kirsh, eds., Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 652-657. Boston.

Alexopoulou, Theodora and Frank Keller. 2003. Linguistic Complexity, Locality and Resumption. In Gina Garding and Mimu Tsujimura, eds., Proceedings of the 22nd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 15-28. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Keller, Frank, Maria Lapata, and Olga Ourioupina. 2002. Using the Web to Overcome Data Sparseness. In Jan Hajic and Yuji Matsumoto, eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 230-237. Philadelphia. EMNLP Best Paper Award.

Alexopoulou, Theodora and Frank Keller. 2002. Resumption and Locality: A Crosslinguistic Experimental Study. In Mary Andronis, Erin Debenport, Anne Pycha, and Keiko Yoshimura, eds., Papers from the 38th Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Vol. 1: The Main Session, 1-14. Chicago.

Lapata, Maria, Frank Keller, and Scott McDonald. 2001. Evaluating Smoothing Algorithms against Plausibility Judgments. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 346-353. Toulouse.

Asudeh, Ash and Frank Keller. 2001. Experimental Evidence for a Predication-based Binding Theory. In Mary Andronis, Christopher Ball, Heidi Elston, and Sylvain Neuvel, eds., Papers from the 37th Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Vol. 1: The Main Session, 1-14. Chicago.

Keller, Frank and Ash Asudeh. 2001. Constraints on Linguistic Coreference: Structural vs. Pragmatic Factors. In Johanna D. Moore and Keith Stenning, eds., Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 483-488. Mahawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Keller, Frank. 2000. Evaluating Competition-based Models of Word Order. In Lila R. Gleitman and Aravid K. Joshi, eds., Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 747-752. Mahawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lapata, Maria, Scott McDonald, and Frank Keller. 1999. Determinants of Adjective-Noun Plausibility. In Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 30-36. Bergen.

Keller, Frank. 1998. Gradient Grammaticality as an Effect of Selective Constraint Re-ranking. In M. Catherine Gruber, Derrick Higgins, Kenneth S. Olson, and Tamra Wysocki, eds., Papers from the 34th Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Vol. 2: The Panels, 95-109. Chicago.

Keller, Frank and Maria Lapata. 1998. Object Drop and Discourse Accessibility. In Kimary Shahin, Susan Blake, and Eun-Sook Kim, eds., Proceedings of the 17th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 362-374. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Keller, Frank. 1997. Underspecified Presuppositions. In Francis Corblin, Danièle Godard, and Jean-Marie Marandin, eds., Empirical Issues in Formal Syntax and Semantics: Selected Papers from the Colloque de Syntaxe et de Sémantique de Paris (CSSP 1995), 291-315. Bern: Peter Lang.

Keller, Frank. 1995. Towards an Account of Extraposition in HPSG. In Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Session, 301-306. Dublin.

Book Chapters

Alexopoulou, Theodora and Frank Keller. 2013. What vs. who and which: Kind-denoting fillers and the complexity of whether-islands. In John Sprouse and Norbert Hornstein, eds., Experimental Syntax and Island Effects, 310-340. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keller, Frank. 2006. Linear Optimality Theory as a Model of Gradience in Grammar. In Gisbert Fanselow, Caroline Féry, Ralph Vogel, and Matthias Schlesewsky, eds., Gradience in Grammar: Generative Perspectives, 270-287. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crocker, Matthew W. and Frank Keller. 2006. Probabilistic Grammars as Models of Gradience in Language Processing. In Gisbert Fanselow, Caroline Féry, Ralph Vogel, and Matthias Schlesewsky, eds., Gradience in Grammar: Generative Perspectives, 227-245. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Keller, Frank. 2001. Experimental Evidence for Constraint Competition in Gapping Constructions. In Gereon Müller and Wolfgang Sternefeld, eds., Competition in Syntax, 211-248. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.